TITLE Solidity Tests And Charpy Impact Test TARGET 1 . To compare the carbon metallic, mild stainlesss steel and ASSAB steel using three several hardness testing, which are Vickers Hardness Test out, Rockwell Solidity Test and Brinell Hardness Evaluation. 2 .
To analyze the hardness of moderate steel, co2 steel and ASSAB which is an important in engineering to design structures or components that related in mechanical homes 3. To look for the resistance of carbon metal and mild steel against sudden influence by Charpy Impact Test out. INTRODUCTION Hardness is a way of measuring a material’s resistance to local plastic deformation.
It also is one of the important properties to be regarded as. Mechanical real estate of precious metals are a essential of executive to design the components which employing predetermined materials such that unsatisfactory levels of deformation and failure will not take place. Hardness is known as a resistance of properties of material to everlasting (plastic) deformation caused by metallic ball or perhaps pyramid-shape diamonds when it is pushed onto their surface. You will have three standard method of Solidity Test which will be carried out upon carbon and metal: (a) Vickers Test (b) Rockwell Test (c) Brinell Check THEORY 1 ) Vickers Check
VHN = Applied weight / Surface area of major depression = = 1 . 854 P/ d2 (approximate) Where P sama dengan applied load (kgf) g = (d1+ d2) as well as 2 (mm) 2 . Rockwell Test HRC = 95 ” g /0. 002 HRB = 130 ” d /0. 002 Wherever d = depth in the indentation 3. Brinell Evaluation BHN sama dengan Applied power / shape area of indentation P / D/2 [D , (D? , d? )] sama dengan P / Dh WhereP = utilized load (kgf) D sama dengan diameter of steel ball (mm) d = diameter of ensuing indentation (mm) h sama dengan depth of indentation (mm) =? [D , (D? , d? )] APPARATUS 1 . Set of Vickers Firmness Test Equipment. Set of Rockwell Hardness Check Machine 3. Set of Brinell Hardness Test Machine INDIVIDUALS Mild metal, carbon steel and ASSAB steel A) VICKERS HARDNESS TEST Using this method square shape pyramid diamond 136 was press to surface area of metallic using some load (5kgf until 120kgf) under particular time (15 sec) and lastly the load can release. Sq . shape corner on the metal surface will be used. To obtain the worth of solidity, Vickers Solidity Number (VHN) is worked out as below: VHN=Mass of the loadSurface part of depression =2PSin1362d2 =1. 854Fd2approximately Where, P=applied forcekgf d=d1+d22
B) ROCKWELL HARDENESS CHECK This method offers 2 key scales which can be: a) Range B, concavity is a steel ball (1. 58 logistik? ) and load using is definitely 100 kgf. b) Scale C, concavity is a cone diamond having corner 120 and load is 150 kgf. Rockwell hardness (HR) may be calculated because equation beneath: HRC=100-d0. 002 HRB=130-d0. 002 Where d=concavity C) BRINELL HARDNESS TEST OUT From brinell hardness test, the harden steel ball has good diameter, D under the insert and particular time will probably be use to get diameter concavity effect, g. BHN=LoadArea of concavity =PD2D2-d2 =P? Dh Where, P=loadkgf D=diameter from the steel ballmm =diameter concavity effectmm H=internal concavity effectmm =12D-D2-d2 TREATMENT a) Vickers Hardness Evaluation 1 . The specimen (Mild Steel) is usually put on the anvil in the Vickers firmness machine exactly. 2 . The sample is targeted until the lines on the surface area of the sample can be noticed clearly. several. The key lens of the microscope is turned to the indenter. four. The indenter is then constrained into the sample. 5. Quality force can be maintained for a specific think time of about 15 seconds. six. The indenter is taken out when the think time can be complete. several. The rectangular shape is appears around the surface from the sample.. The indenter can now be turned to the focal lens. 9. The size of the indent is determined by measuring the two diagonals from the square indent. 10. The first step to being unfaithful is repeated for five times by using the same sample nevertheless at diverse part of the sample. 11. Step 1 to twelve is then repeated by using different sample, which is carbon metal. 12. Every one of the readings considered are registered in a table. b) Rockwell Hardness Test 1 . The sample of ASSAB metal is placed exactly on the anvil. 2 . The anvil is usually wound little by little until the LED begins going to ‘SET’ and the test is began automatically. three or more.
The indenter moves into the position of the part surface of the sample. 4. The load is then applied to the sample for a certain dwell moments of 15 seconds. five. The readings taken will be recorded from your indenter equipment. 6. Step one to 5 is definitely repeated pertaining to five times by using the same sample but at different section of the sample. 7. Step 1 to six is then repeated by using distinct sample of carbon steel. 8. All of the readings considered are noted in a table. c) Brinell Hardness Test 1 . The sample of mild steel is placed effectively on the anvil. 2 . The anvil is wound slowly and gradually until the edge of the indenter touches the top of specimen.. A handle within the right area of the screening machine is usually lifted slowly until the evaluate shows 1000kgf. 4. The indenter is pressed on the sample simply by an effectively controlled power for about a minute of dwell time. a few. The indenter is eliminated slowly after 15 seconds, departing a round indent inside the sample. 6. The size of the indent is taken by measuring two diagonals of the round indent by using a portable microscope. several. Step 1 to six is repeated for two occasions for the same test but by different part of the sample. 8. Step one to several is repeated for another sample of carbon steel. CONSEQUENCE VICKERS SOLIDITY TEST
Gentle Steel Gentle Steel| Reading| Diameter, D1(m)| Diameter, D2(m)| Average(m)| VHN| 1| 409. 0| 409. 8| 409. 4| 111| 2| 395. 2| 395. 2| 395. 2| 119| 3| 402. 5| 404. 2| 403. 35| 114| 4| 401. 1| 402. 3| 401. 7| 115| 5| 371. 7| 364. 3| 368. 0| 137| Average| 119. 2| Co2 Steel| Reading| Diameter, D1(m)| Diameter, D2(m)| Average(m)| VHN| 1| 282. 4| 368. 1| 325. 25| 245| 2| 271. 2| 269. 0| 270. 10| 254| 3| 292. 6| 291. 0| 291. 80| 218| 4| 313. 5| 306. 2| 309. 85| 195| 5| 293. 4| 292. 6| 293. 00| 216| Average| 240. 6| ROCKWELL HARDENSS TEST OUT Carbon Stainlesss steel Reading| HRC| HV| 1| 24. 9| 265. 4| 2| twenty-seven. | 280. 4| 3| 27. 0| 279. 0| 4| 28. 3| 288. 4| 5| 28. 2| 287. 6| Average | 27. 12| 280. 16| ASSAB Steel Reading| HRC| HV| 1| 56. 9| 631. 0| 2| 57. 5| 643. 0| 3| 57. 4| 641. 0| Average | 57. 27| 638. 33| BRINELL SOLIDITY TEST Slight Steel Reading| Diameter, d(mm)| BHN| 1| 3. 5| 101| 2| 3. 6| 95| 3| 3. 5| 101| Average| 3. 53| 99| Carbon dioxide Steel Reading| Diameter, d(mm)| BHN| 1| 2 . 75| 165| 2| 2 . 5| 200| 3| 2 . 7| 271| Average| 2 . 65| 212| DIALOGUE a) Vickers Hardness Evaluation 1 . Out of this experiment, we could conclude the fact that higher the Vickers Hardness Number (VHN) of a specimen, the harder the specimen is.
There were being tested two specimen which is Co2 steel and Mild stainlesss steel for Vickers hardness Evaluation. Carbon steel has an common VHN of 225. 6 while the slight steel comes with an average VHN of 119. 2 . Therefore carbon steel is harder compared to slight steel. installment payments on your The carbon steel is harder than mild metal because there is a presence of carbon atoms within the atoms of the structure. When the external force is definitely applied, the carbon atoms prevent the atoms in the composition into slipping over and falling. b) Rockwell Hardness Test out 1 . From your Rockwell hardness test, we are able to conclude which the higher the HRC range of a specimen, the harder the specimen is.. ASSAB steel is known as a type of combination steel and so its structure is much diverse from that of carbon steel, leading to it to enjoy higher firmness compared to carbon steel. three or more. From the consequence obtained, ASSAB steel comes with an average HRC number of 57. 27 where as carbon steel has an typical HRC number of 27. doze. This imply that AASAB metal is harder compared to the high quality carbon steel. c) Brinell Hardness Test out 1 . For two specimens which usually carbon metallic and gentle steel has been tested with brinell firmness test. The BHN ideals are obtained. The values are depends on the diameter of the indentation triggered. 2 .
We could conclude which the higher the importance of the BHN, the harder the specimen is. a few. From the outcomes, carbon steel has an average BHN of 212 when mild metal only since an average BHN of 99. This confirms that carbon steel is definitely harder than mild metal. 4. Furthermore, the beliefs of BHN obtained could possibly be not correct because of the restriction that brought on human problems. It is difficult for the viewer to note the precise diameter in the indentation through the microscope. CONCLUSION In conclusion, from the results we obtained, it truly is conclude that ASSAB metal is the most challenging material, then carbon metallic and then mild steel.
The hardness of the steel is mainly affected by it is composition and percentage of carbon. Co2 steel can be absorbed strength is lower than the mild metallic. Carbon stainlesss steel is a frail material compared to mild stainlesss steel because of the larger percentage of carbon within the metal. Thus, fractures almost right away upon unexpected impact. 2 . Charpy influence test INTRODUCTION The Charpy Impact Evaluation is the most commonly used test to ascertain material’s resistance from the impact or perhaps sudden crack where a sharpened stress raiser is present.
Sturdiness is a way of measuring the ability of any material to absorb energy up of fracture. Intended for dynamic (high strain rate) loading conditions and when a notch is present, notch strength is assessed by using a direct impact test. Material that experience very little or any plastic deformation upon bone fracture is known as brittle while material that experiences wonderful deformation upon fracture is termed ductile. The crack surfaces to get brittle materials, which has low-energy impact inability, are generally smooth, and in metals have a crystalline overall look.
But for ductile material which includes high energy bone fracture, has parts of shear where fracture area is inclined about 45o to the tensile stress, plus they have generally speaking a rougher, more highly appearance, named fibrous bone fracture. THEORY forty five? 2 mm 45 millimeter 10 millimeter 30? Physique 1 45? 2 millimeter 45 mm 10 millimeter 30? Physique 1 In Charpy impact test, the specimen happen to be arrange because shown in the above photo and every specimen is make will provides a notch at the centre with the specimen and the hammer can clout in the region from the notch we. e. pressure concentration level.
The hammer is relieve from a particular high which the initial energy having by the hammer is 300J. The scale will show the power absorbs by simply each example of beauty after the research and it is documented. APPARATUS Charpy testing machine SPECIMENS Mild steel and carbon stainlesss steel PROCEDURE 1 ) Mild metallic and Carbon dioxide steel is employed in this test out. 2 . Force was applied as an effect blow coming from a weighted pendulum sludge hammer that was launched from a cocked location at a fixed height. 3. The example of beauty was placed at the foundation of the machine. 4.
Upon release, a knife-edge attached to the pendulum strikes and fractures the specimen in the notch, which acts as a stage of anxiety concentration with this high speed impact blow. 5. Following your weighted pendulum hammer features swung to its unique position, the specimen was removed from the vice and its particular fracture surface was discovered. RESULT Specimen| Energy Soaked up / J| Mild Steel| 299| Co2 Steel| 30| DISCUSSION 1 . In this research, we can see which the energy absorbed by gentle steel (299J) is higher compared to the strength absorbed simply by carbon metallic (30J).
This kind of shows that carbon steel is a more brittle material and mild steel is a more ductile material. 2 . In line with the result which will energy consumed by moderate steel can be higher and it is more ductile. In addition , carbon dioxide steel can be described as brittle due to presence with the carbon atoms in steel. The presence of these kinds of carbon atoms provide level of resistance for plastic-type material deformation to occur by stopping atoms in the steel to slip and glide over one another. The large percentage of carbon atoms reduces the capability of the metallic to absorb energy upon effects. 3.
Even as we observe the test that we acquired done in research laboratory, the carbon dioxide steel fails almost immediately when subjected to sudden influence whereas the mild metallic shows only deformation and did not bone fracture. 4. Aside from the area the place that the carbon stainlesss steel fractures can be shinny and smooth which usually shows that that fractures with little deformation. a few. The picture below reveals fracture surface area of the moderate steel. 6. The plan below signifies the break surface of the carbon metallic. Based on the results, it is clear that the ductility of mild metal is greater than carbon stainlesss steel.
The presence of co2 in carbon dioxide steel features minimized the ability to absorb energy in the impact. CONCLUSION In conclusion, we can conclude that mild steel has a dangerous of ductility than co2 steel. Gentle steel is definitely tougher than carbon metal. REFERENCE 1 ) William Farreneheit. Smith and Javad Hashemi “Foundation of Materials Science and Engineering McGraw Hillside, 2005 2 . David D. Rethwish and William D. Callister “Fundamentals of Material Technology and Engineering, John Wiley & Daughters, 2008 several. Lab worksheet 4. Rollesen “Metallurgy Intended for Engineering, ms 15