The subject Educational dreams of countryside India works with studying the aspirations of the rural kids and trying to focus on the various factors that affect the aspirations with the children in some way or the other. Five individuals had gone to five several states in India with all the aim of studying the goals of the rural children of the region and then trying to find out the factors that actually contribute to them. The reason for selecting this type of topic was that we were presented a choice of our to explore any kind of field we want.
We were most interested in understanding more regarding the rural youth adults and their dreams.
To try to know very well what is the difference between your kids coming from a non-urban India and since we some people had were living and had each of our education in rural India we wanted to return back and check out the changes which have come in the society in the event any. Our curiousness towards education program and to understand where the future of India sees itself made us select this matter.
In the beginning we all were thinking singularly on the theme but after we knew regarding our identical interest, we all tried creating a topic in the field that excites us all and finally we chose this subject.
Also one more reason for selecting this matter was that handful of us had been going to genuinely backward states and some individuals were going to the states together with the best educational services. Therefore in a way i was getting the opportunity to study around states and come up with the findings with the reasons of particular dreams in particular areas and how they are affected in various societies. The topic in our view holds a massive importance in the current time because learning about the principal kids from the rural India gives all of us a glance into the actual future may hold set for them and in addition for the country.
Since children of today are definitely the future of the next day so understanding their goals, factors affecting them can certainly help in making alterations that can lead the society and the nation towards a much better future. The five people had gone to five several states particularly Bihar, Odisha, Haryana, Kerala and Uttarakhand. The comparative examine in the later on part of the report talks about the status of primary education across these kinds of states together with the factors affecting them. installment payments on your OBJECTIVES * To develop a comprehension of the educational aspirations from the primary level children in rural India.
* Trying to understand the numerous factors that play an essential role in affecting the aspirations from the primary level children. 2. To do reasonable analysis around 5 several states under a common system and discover common concerns and concerns. 3. STATUS OF MAJOR EDUCATION IN INDIA Education is important not only for the growth of an specific but also for the country as a whole. Principal education is the foundation where the development of every person as well as the region depends.
Although making main education offered to everyone has recently been a major issue and along with this making top quality primary education available provides all recently been more difficult for the state of hawaii. But in the past few years, India indicates tremendous development in the literacy levels and achievements in providing effectively education to all at the main level. Numerous govt. strategies are being implemented in several states that contain resulted in featuring assistance and incentives to the children to come to school and study.
Proper of children to free and compulsory education bill was passed in 2008. Particular schemes to get the underprivileged sections of the society happen to be being executed. 3. 1 Govt. techniques Different govt. schemes will be being executed in various declares across India at the primary level. Some of them are: 2. Mid Day time Meal System (MDMS): MDMS is a scheme that was launched as a On the inside Sponsored Plan in 95. This plan ensures provision of cooked mid time meal to children their studies at elementary level at govt., local human body or government. aided universities.
* Cycle distribution: Another scheme in Bihar where a cycle can be distributed towards the children¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦. 2. Scholarships for EWS: ¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.. * SSA: Sarva Siksha Abhiyan that means education for all those is another one of the many govt. plans that aims at providing education to all. This program aims to universalize elementary education by community ownership with the school program. This program as well provides an chance for improving man capabilities to any or all children. 5. Education Assure Scheme: This is certainly one of the components of SSA geared towards providing education to the kids.
3. two Literacy level The literacy level continues to be on a rise in India with all the latest census report declaring the literacy rate of our country to be 68% in 2007. This is a substantial maximize from 12% at the time of independence and is good since the populace is also growing at an unexpected pace. Among the list of Indian claims Kerala retains the highest literacy level exactly where Bihar is definitely the lowest. This kind of also accounted for an interesting examine as these were the 2 of 5 says being protected. The adult literacy level was 66% in 3 years ago whereas the youth literacy rate was 82% in 2001.
some. METHOD OF ANALYZE * Methodized and unstructured interviews: One of many techniques utilized by us for getting information was structured and unstructured interviews. Many a times, going with questionnaires inside our hands elevated doubts for the people, to avoid that we started with informal shows and then went on with the theme. * Forms: Questionnaires were a means to getting information especially from the main teachers and the village level authorities. Home interviews were also conducted based on the forms.
* Emoticon analysis: Pertaining to the children of primary level it is many a time difficult to ask questions and get the answers. Also they determine more easily together with the visual aids rather than chatting, so for any part of each of our questions to the principal children, we had a set of emoticons for them and they had to pick the answer based upon the emoticons. These emoticons basically portrayed their emotions and feelings at different points of time. * FGDs: FGDs had been conducted between teachers to ensure that we can arrive to know their very own view items on the current education system and the factors affecting the amount of primary education.
* Observations: Also noticing was among our key methods of learning about the village and also what the youngsters do in the school throughout their breaks and the classes. five. CHALLENGES EXPERIENCED There were various challenges confronted by all of us during the job we were performing on the idea paper. Most the teachers were suspect as to why we could doing this function and why do we want to know about them and the education there through the kids? At first most of our time gone in outlining our field work objectives and our reasons to be there.
Receiving information from the kids was one key challenging job as most of those were very shy and it really took great hard work to get things out of them and this too accurate information. The major problem faced was that many reduced caste households who didn’t send youngsters to primary schools showed no desire for talking about this topic to us. It was hard for all of us to encourage them to talk to us. Terminology was one more challenge that was faced especially in Odisha. Few of the people in Uttarakhand too, specifically women spoke in the local Jaunsar language that made things difficult to understand.
6. STATEWISE DATA All of us had gone to different states viz. Bihar, Odisha, Haryana, Kerala and Uttarakhand. Following is known as a brief description of the villages that we choose to go to along with some with the information about our villages as well as the level of main education generally there, along with the factors affecting them in our respective villages. The comparative analysis around states displays the elements affecting the aspirations with the primary level children and how they differ in different communities. 6. you BIHAR Literacy rate of Bihar: 47. 53% Literacy rate of Samastipur: forty five. 76% Man: 57. 83%.
Female: thirty-two. 69% Educational programmes choosing Bihar: 1). Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA) 2). Countrywide programme intended for Education of ladies at Main Level (NPEGEL) 3). Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV) 4). Institution Sanitation and Hygiene Education Programme (SSHE) Literacy rate of Muhammadpur Kowari village: 42% Inhabitants of Muhammadpur Kowari village: 11, five-hundred Income options: Agriculture Worker Business Rickshaw pulling Government and private support. Income level: Annual income ranged from Rs. twenty, 000 ” 1, 40, 000 per annum of the respondents. Education Facilities: 1) Anganwadis- 11 in no .
2) Government School- 5 in no . Primary-4 Middle- you High” Zero 3) Exclusive School- one particular ( upto class 8) 4) LSC runned simply by AKRSP-22 Small town had eleven Anganwadi organisations which might impart learning how to toddlers and preschoolers. There are five federal government primary educational institutions out that one was upgraded towards the middle institution. In addition to this there were one non-public school in village upto class eighth. For larger studies college students had to head to Tajpur intended for class eighth upwards. In addition to this there were exclusive schools for Pusa Highway and Tajpur where registrants of better off family members used to research.
Muslim families preferred Madarasa education for their children in adjoining community Shahpur Baghauni. One can also find training centres mushrooming in and around the village wherever unemployed university graduates had been taking classes and also personal tuitions. We all came to realize that this mushrooming was as a result of ‘Haushla Afjaaayi Sceme’ of state government who does reward pupils promoted by class ninth to tenth and those who passed 10th board exam with initially division represents.
Parent will supplement government school education with non-public tuitions (Rs. 50-100 every student) and coaching for school eighth up-wards. But this was not the case to get poor who higher dropout rates. Regarding this the role of AKRSP is worth it to mention that this ran Learning and Support Centre (LSC) in group and dalit tolas which will imparted free education for nominal fee of Rs. 10 per child each month for two hours in the morning at 22 organisations. It was not really considered as replacement for schools rather a go with to emphasize part and consciousness regarding education. It drawn students from muslim community and dalits who wasn’t able to afford large otherwise.
In this article education was more fun rather than drudgery unlike government colleges. 6. 1 . 1 Elements affecting major education: a). Parents- Father and mother attitude and perception about the education decides the education and aspiration of kids. This attitude and perception in turn is determined by the education of the father and mother, environment they will live in, profits, some earlier experiences and interest in kid development. Muhammadpur Kowari village had 58% muslim inhabitants and 42% hindus of lower sorte and their education level and income was very low.
Mainly worked because farmers, employees, and rickshaw pullers and migrated to other states and cities since land keeping was significantly less while family members size was quite significant. So they’d a pressure to make from the very beginning and rarely anyone was matriculate besides few. Given the limitations they cannot afford very good education or perhaps think big and had been reluctant several had children to marry. Though dads were not thus optimistic with regards to education from the child but mothers were very conscious and fervent.
Mostly the reply came up they no longer want their children to go through hardships because they had and education was the way to finish misery by getting better careers and way of living. Migrant staff that came back on Chhath and BakrId had contact with outside community and stressed the need of education and it was evident within their family. On the other hand there been around a difference between investing in education of male and female child in financially sound or method families whereas there was slight or no big difference in poor families while both genders went to same school with no access to tuitions or coachings or non-public school.
The difference was due to notion that male child would support family while girls certainly are a liability. b). Teachers- All their qualification, schooling, apathy, absenteeism or engagement in other works( e. g. election duty, vaccination hard disks etc . ) proves to be a deciding factor in shaping the minds and so aspirations with the children. The differentiation on basis of peuple, religion or perhaps gender provides very bad effect psychologically and mentally. Such children develop low self esteem, unwantedness and develop bitterness.
From this village when the teachers were interviewed concerning this subject they agreed the lack of staff s (4 teachers had been for a central school upto 8th standard) and hampering of research due to different official works. Also, the teachers showed up late pertaining to the duty and can be seen talking on the verandah and had zero concerns that which was going within the classroom. Deficiency of trained teachers was believed as afin de teachers appointed to take classes were not skilled enough for taking classes away higher specifications.
In 2 schools it absolutely was found more than you class was going on in a single classroom and in you school had 2 bedrooms only hence the classes had been conducted within thatched roof. It was prevalent in many universities the student of class 6 experienced less learning what would have been in any other case obvious intended for class 5 reasons getting the quality of instructing in federal government school. An incident was there every time a teacher was asked within an informal chat about aforesaid e. g. he informed parents might come and quarrel that my child knows less than the ‘Y’ child and create hassle so that were there to pass every. As a result of this kind of child will fare poorly in substantial classes.
Moreover the mismanagement of funds in midday meal plan was brought in a recognize in panchayat meeting. Within example for the Anganwadi staff was mentioned the afternoon meal offered by anganwadi the lady told that out of Rs. 15, 000 allotted Rs. 6000 would be shared among official issuing the fund plus the rest might serve the reason naturally the product quality will decline. c). Students- When the students were interviewed along with emoticons it was a real fun for them. Nevertheless it was tried out best to interview them post school so in front of instructors they would think twice and could not really express widely.
Female students were evaluated in school because of the traditional nature from the households and so they used to originate from far areas. In schools as well as at LSCs the efficiency of girls was better than that of boys. The students had curiosity and had better result in mathematics but got poor functionality in vocabulary paper. According to the survey this s due to 2 reasons- teaching was boring and teacher was usually lack of, secondly various students was taught in urdu in the home and thus had difficulty in publishing in hindi.
When kids were mentioned being lacking from school they gave subsequent reasons- gonna relatives home ( when it was a festival time), supporting father in fields( sowing time for cigarette and cauliflower), no instructing in school numerous teachers were either absent or got taken leave after the selection duty. Likewise, there were young boys who arrived at school yet did not attend classes as their peers had been playing. On the other hand girls a new different explanation as some of those had to care for their young brother or sister although her mom went to work in fields although some of them supported their father and mother to pusa road industry to sell fruit and vegetables.
But amazingly the attendance, interest and gratification of the students were better at LSC because it integrated rhymes, toys, drawing and games period and more powerful teachers. LSC had ending up in parents once per month, emphasized about curricular activities as well. It had organized ‘Bal Sabha’ (parent’s day) on 19th The fall of which was a fresh experience for childrens and more fun. d). Institution infrastructure- The debilitated circumstances of government educational institutions with leaky roofs, lack of drinking water and toilets is known as a discouraging element for lady child enrollment and also absenteeism.
Lack of instructing aids, textual content books, sports activities articles makes teaching learning process a monotonous act so children tries various ways to escape institution. Also, bullying by friends or fear of corporeal abuse by instructors is a significant cause of dropouts and absenteeism in these educational institutions. All these were common inside the village and absenteeism was more in rainy time of year as university had lessrooms or was leaky. Anybody can imagine the field of two classes commencing in a single space and learning of child in this environment. In addition if there were any relationships around it was a practice to stay Baraat in the school so unofficially it was a kin of holiday.
e). Economic current condition of family- This factor was found as the most important factor along with parent’s attitude and perception throughout the village stay. Now here are 4 cases- firstly the family was poor and wanted your child to continue study, secondly that they wanted child to make or help in fields or perhaps do other works for livelihood, finally family was well off and could find the money for education and fourthly they wanted those to look after agriculture as land holding and agricultural salary was much more they felt there is no need to study. It has been talked about in detail in parents section. f).
Societal culture ” It explains how the world affects parents and children thinking and feeling about education and the actual aspire to become in future. In Muhammadpur Kowari the villagers were involved in agriculture and labor works mainly and were either illiterate or had extremely less formal education thus they were less informed. They viewed education as a way to defeat poverty simply by seeking jobs such as teaching, police, army, government assistance etc . So any successful example of any person getting this sort of jobs was looked with respect and younger era wanted to emulate his accomplishment.
On the other hand lots of the views that many educated man does not gets the government task so you cannot find any use to research and wanted their child to interact in functions. Another kind of thought that all emerged was to seek advantage of schemes by simply enrolling kid to school in order to engage naughty children to get few hours or the meal served in the afternoon at college. Many dalits had unhealthy experience of discrimination in the past and viewed education and ‘aspirations’ as privilege of upper class and body and it would make zero difference to their conditions.
Muslims send their children to madarsa for education and by 14 years of age they will dropped to be able to learn some tailoring or masonry works to gain bread and butter. Not many muslim homeowners send their children to school and those belonging to Sheikhs and organization class had tutors for their children. Residence tutors were available for young lady child due to parda system they were certainly not going outside of the village to examine and after eighth standard they will dropped away. However it was obviously a matter of big surprise that these young ladies when interviewed were more happy and had no desire to research further and it had created in their culture as higher limit of girl education..
One more remark was that muslim family got no issues in sending their girl child to LSCs run by AKRSP because it was nearby or in their vicinity and mainly the female teachers were in that centres. Consequently concern to get security and parda system was guiding the dreams. 6. 2 ODISHA Village: Badampada Block: Kaptipada Region: Mayurbhanj State: Odisha six. 2 . you Village: Badampada: -The small town Badampada is usually 60 kms from Baripada, the district head one fourth of Mayurbhanj. It is around 8 kilometers away from prevent head one fourth, kaptipada. The place I stopped at is approaching under tribal belt of Mayurbhanj.
The Similipal book forest is definitely near to each of our village. since the area is usually surrounded by the dense forest, people are more involved in to NTFP collection from the jungle. Since the forest cover is depleting everyday, more individuals are diverted towards agriculture. Besides agriculture, some individuals depend on animals. A very people are salaried and a tiny part of the villagers are business people. The literacy rate of Orissa is 63. 08% (2001 census), while the literacy rate in the district is usually 52. 43%. The literacy rate of the district is not equiparable with the point out, because the tribe constitute 57.
67% in the total human population of the state. Since there was clearly very much less tribal family members in our small town, literacy rate of the community is more than that of region i. e 60%. The different schemes are implemented by the state government to attract the youngsters to the institution. The children inside the primary institution are provided Middle Day food. The students can also be text literature, free of cost through District Principal Education Plan (DPEP). To further improve the female literacy rate, the state of hawaii Govt is providing school uniform to women in the principal school. TheState govt. declared Rs 500 cr for Sarva Siksha Abhijan structure.
There is a primary school inside the village, badampada which answers the needs of local villages just like vaisnab sahi, Dhumkheta, sisodia etc . Included in this Vaisnab Sahi is the tribal dominated village. 6. 2 . 2 Elements Affecting desire of the Kids of Primary School * Parents- School students in the village are enthusiastic about education; however , parents are not very supportive. Most parents seem to believe education being a meaningless practice without any genuine benefit. A lot of people in the village are in the working school, they force their children to help them in their function. I found major difference between Odiya and tribal people.
While father and mother of Odiya family are incredibly much excited to send their children to school, the truth is opposite is in tribal families. 2. Teachers-The professors play a vital role in the primary education. The teachers inside the village display very little curiosity towards the education. I arrived at know, a few teachers are involved in parallel business during university time. They just do not work for the whole duration of their particular duty period and go home early. Another trick used by teachers is regular presence simply by teachers (at a particular time one teacher remains present, while might be the remaining one is absent).
My spouse and i am reliably informed the school Brain master was caught although stealing eggs which were provide for Mid day meal. * School Infrastructure- There is two class bedrooms and one office place in the main school. Thus multiple classes are going on in a single class room. The specific situation inside the class room is very much disorderly. It is very difficult on the part of the teacher to take care of the multiple classes at the same time. I have observed number kids moving beyond the classroom during school time. The educator student percentage is 32 in the college. The school children are not getting books at the best.
No sound visual help is supplied to the college. * Economical status ” The parents with the well off family send their children to English Medium School by Kaptipada. Due to poor monetary status in the tribal household, they can’t afford the other establishments to their children during festival period; there exists high absenteeism in the institution in case of tribe students. Since they are not furnished with any entertainment in their residence, they attend the reasonable without likely to school. A lot of children support their household working in others firm to satisfy the day to day home consumption.
* Societal Culture- Children imbibes from the culture, surrounding these people. Since, the parents are not much aware about the benefit of the education; they will don’t stimulate their children to go to the school. They are in favour of instant income. Kids leave institution in early era to earn money in tribe family. 6th. 3 HARYANA Village: Gundiani Block: Mustafabad Tehsil: Jaghadhari District: Yamuna Nagar six. 3. you Village: Gundiani: ” A little village of population 494, located about 4 kilometres away from a small town called Mustafabad, linked via highway and railroad routes.
According to my fieldwork stay, village appears to be prosperous and it was maintained government data of BPL family number which was ten only out of total 68 homeowners. Major income generating supply of villagers is agriculture and apparently couple of villagers perform have some organization and solutions options as well which they include chosen above agriculture, also there are some cases of villagers travelling abroad for making livelihood. Therefore as the sources of income was varied and so the income level was also have a varied selection of about 1 lakh to 60 lakh per annum.
Infrastructures related to education available in small town boundaries had been a govt primary university, however in a 3 km radius of village a single government larger secondary university, three non-public schools had been located and school chartering of 3-4 prominent non-public schools of which one incorporate Delhi Community School, layer to the town for picking students. Literacy rate of Haryana is usually 67. 91 % ( 2006 info ), and this of the Yamuna nagar district is 72. 20 % ( 06\ data ) while that of village Gundiani was identified to be sixty-eight. 81% ( 2010 data collected by Kamal & Sandeep).
Very well irrespective of all of these infrastructure the literacy degree of village was on not a brighter side as compared to general state literacy level and the lower side as compared to regarding district. This is often attributed to the prior generation literacy as the thinking of previous generation was that they need to do agriculture only, so there is no need of education for that, consequently this thinking pulled throughout the overall literacy level to reduce side. 6th. 3. a couple of Factors influencing aspiration of primary young children: * Father and mother: They enjoy the most important role as residence is the building stone from the child’s existence and in the property the friends and family i.
e parents enjoy a vital role in aspiring the kid for education. Educational certification of parents is actually a major aspect which designs the thinking about parents toward education and future of the youngster. In small town Gundiani, even though the literacy level was low but still father and mother were conscious enough regarding education with their child. But they were not conscious of future elements and where you can get this information. Father and mother just discover other children from the small town and their culture and hence understand the importance of education and hence encourage high pertaining to the children.
5. Teachers: By primary level teachers influence the most the ongoing future of a child as they mold the mind of a child and hence encourage the activities of child to life and education as well. In village Gundiani, in government main school there was only two teachers plus they were taking enough pain to work at better future of students. They will used to educated students regarding what they need to face in future if they will don’t analyze well and used to provide examples of other sorts of people off their village just so that kids can easily relate them and may learn quickly the importance of education.
While in the private universities in near by areas it was not so because the instructors employed by most of schools are not well competent, they were generally there to just educate from textual content books and were aiding the children to know the importance of education. But nevertheless the parents often send the youngster to a exclusive school, the reason behind this was that admitting your child to private institution was seen as an status symbol in the town, and even couple of poor people accustomed to send their child just to develop their position. Hence we could say that the teachers play a vital role expanding the aspirations of a kid at main level.
2. School Facilities: This is one of many vital components affecting the aspiration of youngsters and their notion towards education. In the small town Gundiani the us government school was having two class bedrooms and a single room for mid day meal system meal prep. There were 6 standards inside the school yet there were just two course rooms in each that three progressive, gradual standards had been taught simply by teachers side-by-side. While in the event of nearby private schools each standard was taught in various class room and enough instructors were obtainable but the diploma of teachers was suspect to some extent.
Inside the class areas teaching aid were accessible in case of government schools whilst in some with the few non-public schools they were thinking of including it. * Economic Position: Economic position of information a lot in the case of the education presented to the kid and hence in direct amount affects the inspirations in the child too parents towards education. Because the friends and family income typically determines the likelihood of a child getting education as well as quality depending upon the schools that children are delivered.
Apart from the institution the outside university education and facilities provided by parents according to their economic status like availing school bus so that child can go to far off better school and also time wastage in traveling can be minimized, availing non-public tuitions, better text catalogs. Also better economic position of parents give a high confidence level to the child and in turn all the above factors extremely influence the inspirations of child as well that of parents toward education of their child.
* Societal tradition: This section fundamentally include the society and traditions the town which very affect the thinking of parents, instructors and in the finish that of kid. In culture parents view the other kids and then compare their child with others and hence try that their child as well progress about some benchmark set simply by them. Likewise availability of couple of role models in the village like few villagers include migrated to other big cities due to jobs and some migrated overseas which turned out to be role designs for the fogeys of additional children and therefore they also wished their child to prosper anytime and get out of bed to those positions.
For this the parents were clearly aware that their child needs to be sent to school. Therefore the social cultures in the village affect significantly the inspiration from the parents in in turn those of the child. 6th. 4 KERALA It is possible to talk about that the state of Kerala has a one of a kind position inside the education map of India with a literacy rate of 90. 92%. This rate is the top in India according to 2001 census. Out of which literacy rate of people accounts to 94. 2% and 87. 86% correspondingly. Kerala started to be the initial state in India to declare full literacy in a single district called Ernakulam (1990).
With the support of central government, government of Kerala launched a volume of programmes in education sector. One of this sort of programmes is definitely “Akshara Keralam introduced 20 years ago. It was geared towards bringing maximum number of illiterates to colleges and other research centres. Apart from all these NGO interventions in education are there in rural and backward aspects of Kerala. In April1991 Kerala was announced as completely literate state by NLM (As per the best practice rules of NLM, a literacy rate above 90 % shall be cared for as complete literacy).
Kerala topped the training Development Index (EDI) between 21 main states in India in year 2006-2007. A report by NLM in 2007 declares that Mizoram surpassed Kerala in literacy rate. SSA is also running well in Kerala. CDS, Trivandrum is monitoring the activities of SSA in Kerala. Kerala has made main achievements in school enrolment in the primary level and in stopping drop outs. Education companies in Kerala include the two government and private parties. The percentage of private assisted schools is usually considerably high. Government educational institutions constitute 33% of total schools in Kerala. Education in these universities is completely cost-free.
Government aided private educational institutions and fully private owned schools accounts to 45% and 22% respectively. Quantity of primary colleges in Kerala is 6712(2551-govt, 4003-aided exclusive, 158-unaided private) Education accounts for more than one third of the total revenue costs of the state. The per capita expenditure on education is the second highest among states in India. six. 4. you Idukki Region Profile Idukki is the substantial range section of Kerala. It is famous for its Tremendous mountain Hills and Spices. This kind of district occupies 13% from the area of Kerala. It can be declared for Keralites Idukki, means power generation also.
Regarding 66% with the state’s electrical power needs range from Hydroelectric Electric power Projects in Idukki. 88. 58% with the district populace is literate. Male literacy rate (92%) is much higher compared to girl literacy charge (85%). 6th. 4. two Karunapuram Village Profile Karunapuram village comes under Udumbanchola taluka of Idukki and Nedumkandam prevent. It has a inhabitants of 26033 according to 2001 census. The major income source is cultivation and sibling activities. The literacy charge of this small town is???. 40 Anganwadis are there. six. 4. a few Factors influencing the educational goals and their role in Karunapuram * Parents: -.
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