HIGHER COMMENCE OF AGRICULTURE & CREATURE PRODUCTION (ISAE) DEPARTMENT OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT & AGRIBUSINESS (RDA) PROGRAM: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (RM) CREDIT: 3 sama dengan 45 hrs (30 Theory + 15 TP) CLASS: RDA next Yr, Aug 2012 AREA: Rubilizi Grounds, CONVENOR: Doctor J. Rich N.
KANYARUKIGA PhD (IWRM), UDSM, Tanzania, MSc TAD (AE&P), Browsing, UK, BSc Agric (AS&P), SUA, Morogoro, Tanzania Get in touch with: Tel: +250 785 437 335, Email-based:[email, protected] alternating current. rw [email, protected] com kf. [email, protected] com , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , – Course objectives: Key Objective: To provide conceptual and practical suggestions on how to perform research, in a manner according to scientific exploration methodology. Particular objectives: 1 ) To provide students with the understanding of the concepts of RESEARCH by perspectives of: i. Exploration community on its own (students, lecturers/researchers, reviewers, etc . ) 2. Research users/clients: especially: ) Policy-makers who also commission study or control calls for tender b) Evaluators and critics who take part in awarding exploration contracts and c) Study funders, including public and agencies, charity foundations, companies and NGOs. * To equip learners with abilities & functions to perform research tightly related to for Countryside Development & Agribusiness in our country, in addition to a manner up to date professional specifications. Course structure & organization a) a few Units snabel-a 10 hrs of theory lecture ) 2 Units @ a few hrs of just one INDIVIDUAL & 1 GROUP essay article c) you Unit of 5 hours periods Class presentations d) GRADING: e) forty percent: 2 Essays & Class presence/presentations f) 60%: Port exam TRAINING COURSE I: INTRO: The Basics of Research Technique , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , – Refer Lecture Notes: Evison Bhebhe (2009). Socio-Economic Analysis Methods 1 ) Meaning of research installment payments on your Mission of research three or more. Reasons/ Importance of research some. General methods of exploration process a few. Research philosophy 1) Positivism 2) Interpretivism. Classification/Taxonomy of research strategies 3) Lab experimentation 4) Field experimentation ” subjective/argumentative 5) Online surveys , Actions research 6) Case studies ” circumstance studies 7) Theorem evidence ” descriptive/interpretive 8) Foretelling of ” long term research 9) Simulation ” role/game playing 10) Actions research six. Research challenges, hypotheses & research aims II: STUDY STATISTICSS: The Basics of Analysis Statistics , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , – Refer Text message Book: Kothari, CK (¦. ). Analysis Methodology , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , Likewise: Msambichaka, LA (1992). Methods & tips for agriculture & RD evaluation ” a handbook intended for functional managers 1 . Advantages * There are plenty of problems in rural areas which will need systematic research * Thus, data collection, processing & analysis becomes essential 5. This section attempts to discuss: * Data collection, and 2. Most basic statistical tools to use 2 . Info collection: a few. 1 . Set of questions (schedule) design and style (Dos & Don’ts) While preparing a questionnaire consider the subsequent: i.
Inquiries to be simple & clear ii. Design and style questions to get objective answers that may be tabulated iii. Produce instructions & definitions exact so that enumerator doesn’t hesitation info required, or record tool to work with iv. Organize questions in logical series, each problem facilitating answer to subsequent issue. Do not allow questions to skip backwards and forwards. Frame one topic after another sixth is v. Avoid leading questions mire. Do not shed your head in the event you get ineffective answers caused by your questions three or more. 2 . Sample method
When ever selecting a sampling method, select data which will provide a test as agent as possible to get realistic conclusions: my spouse and i. (Simple) Randomly sampling: 2. assumes that every time a product (sample size n coming from N population) is selected, each of people items has a equal opportunity or the same probability to be selected. 2. Selection of unique numbers is usually facilitated by using a desk of randomly numbers (Appendix I) ” whereby picking 2 digits is recommended. ii. Systematic sampling: * Test size established in advance 2. Basic list (not automatically numbered) is definitely prepared, Following, sampling percentage or sample fraction can be computed ” expressed while 1 in n (round numbers) * Figure t used since sampling span, i. at the. every k-th item in the list, starting from any kind of random commenced with 3. Cluster sample: * Sub-divides population into grps or perhaps clusters of individuals * After that gets sample by using basic random sampling * Sub-divisions (sampling units) are called groupings iv. Stratified sampling 5. Sampling shape (the population) divided into homogenous classes/groups known as strata in respect to one or maybe more criteria (e. g. ex lover, age, job profiles * In each stratum, self-employed sampling (stratified random or perhaps stratified systematic) is performed * Optimal way to stratify is usually to find teams with large variability between strata, & very small variability within stratum 3. several. Measures of central trend: The math mean, function, & median can be calculated either: 2. From individual data values (ungrouped data), or * From info which have been tabulated in particular intervals (grouped) 3. four. 1 . 1 ) Calculation from ungrouped data vii. The mean viii.
A weighted arithmetic imply ix. Calculating arithmetic suggest for vast quantities x. The median several. 4. 1 . 2 . 11. 1 . Process to establish a median xi. The function 3. some. 1 . installment payments on your Calculation via grouped info set xii. The indicate xiii. The median xiv. The method 3. four. Measures of variability (dispersion) 3. five. 1 . three or more. The range three or more. 5. 1 ) 4. The variance & standard deviation 3. your five. 1 . a few. Coefficient of variation Msambichaka, pp: 1-28 3. Data presentation four. 5. Tabulations ” guidelines: * Articles & row * Data alignment some. 6. Graphics * Histograms * Charts