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DIRECTORATE-GENERAL FOR EXTERNAL POLICIES POLICY DEPARTMENT POLICY AGGLOMÉRATION Human rights in North Korea Summary The human privileges record in the Democratic Someones Republic of Korea (DPRK, or North Korea) have been widely ruined by the international community, which includes by the EUROPEAN and the Western Parliament. The ascension with the latest ruler of the Betty dynasty, Ellie Jong-un, in December 2011 has not brought tangible alter. Since the region is almost closed to foreigners, a persons rights condition can only become evaluated based upon the tales of asile and defectors.

Their particular reports consistently reveal blatant and unrepentant violations of human privileges, which aim to elicit the overall submission of the country’s citizens to the plan and its ideology. While the most North Koreans suffer from long term hunger, people who try to leave the country encounter harsh consequence upon repatriation. Citizens thought of being disloyal to the regime and their family members are placed, devoid of trial, in prison camps with unlovable conditions. North Korea is probably the countries undertaking the highest numbers of executions in the world.

FOR EURO PARLIAMENT INTERIOR USE ONLY DG EXPO/B/PolDep/Note/2012_265 RAPID EJACULATIONATURE CLIMAX, 491. 441 September 2012 EN Insurance plan Department, Directorate-General for External Policies This Policy Agglomération was expected by the Western european Parliament’s delegation for relations with Down under and New Zealand. AUTHOR: Anete BANDONE Directorate-General intended for External Guidelines of the Union Policy Department WIB 06 M eighty five rue Wiertz 60 B-1047 Brussels Reviews to anete. [email, protected] europa. eu is meet. Editorial Helper: Pia VANNESTE LINGUISTIC VERSION: Original: EN

ABOUT THE PUBLISHER: Manuscript completed about 17 Sept 2012. European Union, 2012 Printed inBelgium This Coverage Briefing exists on the intranet site of the Directorate-General intended for External Plans, in the Regions and countries or Coverage Areas section. To obtain conventional paper copies, you should send a request simply by e-mail to: [email, protected] europa. eu. DISCLAIMER: Any kind of opinions portrayed in this doc are the only responsibility from the authors and don’t necessarily signify the official position of the Western european Parliament.

Imitation and translation, except for commercial purposes, happen to be authorised, presented the source is definitely acknowledged and provided the publisher is given prior recognize and supplied with a copy of the publication. a couple of Human rights in North Korea DESK OF ITEMS 1 . installment payments on your 3. 4. 5. Summary Human rights violations International treaties Reactions of the intercontinental community Commun 4 your five 10 twelve 14 several Policy Office, Directorate-General pertaining to External Procedures 1 . Summary The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is a great authoritarian suggest that emerged following your Second World War and has been dominated by the Betty dynasty since that time.

The latest countrywide elections, held in March 2009, were neither free neither fair. North Korea’s human being rights record is based primarily on the tales of asile and defectors. North Korea’s human legal rights situation is usually difficult to evaluate: the get of foreigners to the country is restricted and others who carry out enter happen to be under close surveillance. North Koreans are not allowed to keep the country, meaning reports are mainly based on the contributions of refugees and defectors.

Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) report that North Korea commits blatant human rights violations: arbitrary and everlasting imprisonment, political prison camps, torture, general public executions, reductions of workers’ rights, and prohibitions in freedoms of expression, multimedia, movement, relationship and religious beliefs 1 . North Korea’s human being rights violations have been generally condemned, which includes by the Un General Set up and Individual Rights Authorities, which have followed several resolutions.

Nevertheless, the North Korean government demands that there are no human legal rights issues near your vicinity, arguing that its system has been picked by the persons: , The text “human rights” sound totally nonsensical inside the DPRK the place that the dignity and independent privileges of the doing work masses will be fully certain legally and institutionally. , 2 Not any tangible improvements have been noticed since Kim Jongun believed power in December 2011. The elevation of Betty Jong-un after the death of his daddy Kim Jong-il in Dec 2012 features hardly altered the seedy situation, though Kim Jong-un has discussed improving peoples’ lives.

While recently as December 2011 DPRK government bodies issued a statement indicating they will , annihilate’ up to three generations of the family if a family member fled the country throughout the 100-day length of mourning following the death of Kim Jong-il Border regulates were also intensified 3. one particular 2 ALL OF US State Section Korean Central News Company 2012 three or more ICNK, Betty Jong El Tightens Hold along Line, 16 January 2012 4 Human rights in North Korea installment payments on your Human rights violations 2 . 1 . Executions

North Korea’s criminal code foresees the death penalty for more than 20 crimes, which includes smuggling and dealing drugs, stealing point out property and counterfeiting forex. The code also permits arbitrary decisions by the authorities, who can identify , the gravest cases’ or , extremely severe cases’ 5. In 2011 North Korea accomplished 30 or more people, placing the country among the list of ranks of these carrying out the very best number of executions in the world, according to Exemption International a few. 2 . installment payments on your Torture and ill-treatment

Individuals who are accused and arrested in many cases are subjected to self applied to put in force obedience and get bribes or perhaps information, even though North Korea’s criminal code prohibits self applied or inhuman treatment. Relating to Human Rights Observe, common types of torture contain sleep starvation, beatings with iron fishing rods or twigs, kicking and slapping, and enforced sitting down or standing up for hours. A study conducted completely found that 60 % of previously locked up refugee respondents had experienced a death due to conquering or self applied 6.. several. Some 200 000 people live in jail camps, incarcerated with their people and without trial. Prison camps According to Amnesty Worldwide, around 2 hundred 000 prisoners (about 0. 85 % of the population) are held in six huge political penitentiary camps (gwalliso). People who are suspected of not being loyal for the regime will be sent to these camps with out a trial, typically with three generations of their family ” spouses, children and parents ” and mainly without any desire of relieve.

The prisoners may include committed , crimes’ including not dusting a portrait of the leader or becoming Christian six. North Korea has never recognized 4 Survey of the Unique Rapporteur within the situation of human privileges in The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea 5 Exemption International, Fatality Sentences and Executions 2011 6 Individual Rights Observe (HRW) Globe Report 2012 7 The Economist, The gulag at the rear of the goose-steps, 21 Apr 2012 eight The Situation of Detainees in Gulag System 5 Plan Department, Directorate-General for Exterior Policies why these camps exist.

Conditions in the camps procedure those of slavery, with misery and no medical treatment. Prisoners, which includes children, are forced to operate conditions nearing slavery, electronic. g., mining, logging and farming, 7 days a week intended for twelve several hours or more each day. They are often subjected to torture and kept on the brink of hunger. A defector has referred to the daily ration as approximately twenty grains of corn every prisoner. Convicts search through cow dung pertaining to undigested wheat. No medical therapy is supplied in the camp.

Pregnant women will be subjected to compelled abortions or perhaps forced to stop their babies upon delivery to be murdered or left behind. 8. In 2011, Amnesty Intercontinental said that believed North Korea’s penitentiary camps were expanding. The organisation primarily based its studies on satellite pictures on the lookout for, prison camps can be seen on the search engines Earth. installment payments on your 4. Meals shortages North Korea has become dependent on meals aid since famine in the mid1990s. In March 2011, the ALGUN estimated more than half a dozen million vulnerable persons in North Korea needed immediate international meals aid 10.

With foodstuff shortages reaching more than one , 000, 000 tonnes, the World Food Plan called this the most severe famine in a decade. Among the causes will be floods, an incredibly harsh wintertime, discriminatory foodstuff policies that favour the elite, as well as the economic mismanagement of a economic devaluation plan in November 2009 that wiped out various peoples’ personal savings. In his February 2012 statement, United Nations (UN) Special Rapporteur Marzuki Darusman called for the DPRK federal government to set aside more solutions to cultivation than to its armed service sector 11.

At the same time, this individual emphasised that food , should never eine used since an instrument of political and economic pressure’ (referring into a 1999 General Comment on the justification to food by the UN Committee on Economical, Social and Cultural Rights) 12. Nevertheless, the U. S. hung its ideas for food aid to North Korea after the story of a fresh rocket kick off in Drive. In Summer 2012, the United Nations Expansion Programme (UNDP) Resident Manager in Pyongyang, Jerome Sauvageon, reported that one in twins in North Korea is usually stunted as a result of malnourishment 13.

The year 2013 could be particularly difficult to get North Koreans as the 9 Exemption International, Non prosequitur International Survey Exposes North Korean Gulags, June 2011 10 HRW World Survey 2012 10 Report from the Special Rapporteur 2012 doze Report with the Special Rapporteur 2012 13 Reuters, U. N. optimistic on U. S. aid for North Korea, foodstuff still a problem, June 2012 6 Human being rights in North Korea country may well face a fresh famine due to losses up to 13 % of their grain harvesting this year, in accordance to a recent report with a South Korean language official 18.

Losses result from a drought that adopted widespread flooding this summer and that obliged the region to obtain immediate food assistance. The regime features announced that it has set an objective for 2012 ” the centenary of the birthday of Kim Arianne Sung, the first head of the DPRK ” to formulate its economic system, improve their people’s lives and appeal to foreign investment 15. In August 2012, the uncle of North Korea’s leader Ellie Jong-un, Jang songthaek, achieved China’s President Hu Jintao to explore methods to revive North Korea’s decimated economy and advance further than the Marxist economic version 16.

In addition there are reports of plans pertaining to financial reform 17. installment payments on your 5. Media and internet Kim Jong-II’s death obviously demonstrated just how tight the government’s hold remains for the media and information: this news was broadcast on North Korean condition television simply two days later 18. Most sources of press, such as the airwaves and television, are closely controlled by the authorities and greatly censored. The contents of national multimedia almost entirely consist of personal propaganda and the promotion with the leaders’ persona cults. Net use is restricted to the political elite.

Mobile phone access is limited to an internal network (one million users or four % with the inhabitants), and international cell phone calls can only come in by foreigners and the politics elite nineteen. Fines in making an international call up can be as excessive as KPW 1 million (about CHF 1 100), coupled with seven days of detention 20. North Korea can be ranked second-to-last out of 179 countries in the World Press Freedom Index, before Eritrea 21. 2 . 6. Independence of expression The government frequently evaluates its citizens’ devotion to the regime with the help of a big network of informants.

Individuals considered subversive are punished, disloyal residents of Pyongyang are expulsed from the capital 22. 13 15 Reuters, Destitute North Korea’s feed harvest found falling dramatically, 4 September 2012 CIA World Fact Book of sixteen Reuters, China’s Hu offers show of support for North Korea, 17 August 2012 17 ICNK, The Signs of Economical Reform in North Korea, 28 Aug 2012 18 Reporters Devoid of Borders: North Korea nineteen US Condition Department 20 Reporters With out Borders: North Korea twenty one Reporters With out Borders: Community Press Independence Index 22 HRW Globe Report 2012 Policy Office, Directorate-General to get External Procedures 2 . 7. Freedom of assembly and association The country’s 1992 constitution comes with provisions to get freedom of assembly and association, though this is not respectable in practice. Every organisations are made by the govt 23. installment payments on your 8. Flexibility of religion The DPRK is usually officially a great atheist state. Autonomous faith based activities are almost low existent, although the government beneficiaries some spiritual groups to develop the impression of religious flexibility 24.

The constitution foresees freedom of faith, while specifying that ‘no one may employ religion as a method by which to drag in foreign power or to eliminate the state or social order” 25. Last year, the Southern region Korean Investigative Commission on Crime Against Humanity reported on the public execution of a Christian girl accused of distributing the Bible. The Bible is definitely banned in the North twenty six. 2 . 9. Freedom of motion: refugees Departing the country without state authorization is a criminal offense in North Korea.

People who leave ” most often to attend China ” face harsh punishment in the event that repatriated. Moreover, as mentioned above, DPRK authorities given a statement in December 2011 indicating that they can , annihilate’ up to 3 generations of any family when a family member fled the country during the 100-day length of mourning for the fatality of Kim Jong-il 28. Border regulates were also become more intense last year twenty-eight. Over the years, about 400 1000 North Koreans have fled the country, and several are living in neighbouring Chinese suppliers as unlawful immigrants.

They are really routinely repatriated, despite China’s obligation to provide protection to refugees under international rules, the Asylum Convention of 1951 as well as the Convention’s 1967 Protocol, that China is a situation party 29. In March 2012, in least forty one North Korean refugees were forcibly repatriated by the People’s Republic of China (PRC) to the DPRK 30. In June several of them were executed 31. Up to 400 000 North Koreans possess escaped. Individuals who are repatriated confront harsh abuse. 23 ALL OF US State Office 2011 Individual Rights Studies: Democratic Someones Republic of Korea twenty four 25 CIA World Fact Book

Fraction Rights Group International: North Korea Summary 26 LABELLISÉ BASSE CONSOMMATION, North Korea , executes Christians’, This summer 2009 28 European Legislative house Resolution, twenty-five May 2012 28 Survey of the Unique Rapporteur 2012 29 HRW World Report 2012 31 UN Human Rights Authorities 31 ICNK, North Korea executes four defectors delivered back from China almost eight Human privileges in North Korea installment payments on your 10. Labour rights North Korea is one of the few countries that have not joined the International Work Organisation (ILO). The judgment Korean Workers’ Party handles the only sanctioned trade union organisation, the overall Federation of Trade Unions of Korea 32. 2 . 11. Fraction rights

There is not any specific dotacion regarding the security of hispanics in North Korean legal guidelines. North Korea is one of the planet’s most homogeneous countries in linguistic and ethnic terms: almost all twenty-three million inhabitants are ethnic Koreans whose ancestors have been living presently there for thousands of years. There is certainly only one, really small Chinese fraction of around 50 000. 33 installment payments on your 12. Legal rights of handicapped people Although North Korea participated in the 2012 Paralympics in London, there were reports during the past of handicapped newborns being killed associated with disabled persons being brought to special camps and prohibited from the capital 34.

A 2003 legislation stipulates the same access intended for disabled folks to general public services yet has not been executed. 35 2 . 13. Abductions In the past, the DPRK has been involved in the hold of overseas citizens, primarily South Korean and Japanese persons. More than five-hundred persons have reportedly been kidnapped. However , no improvement has been created using investigations in such abductions or the release of abductees since 2002, when two Japanese nationals were went back to The japanese 36. The DPRK got promised to reopen the investigation into the cases of suspected abductions of Japan nationals in 2008 37.. 14. Rule of regulation And impartial judiciary and individual rights do not can be found in North Korea, though, according to the country’s constitution, courts are impartial 32 33 HRW Record 2012 Minority Rights Group International: North Korea Guide 34 ICNK, Disability, the Paralympics, and Ji Seong Ho, 30 August 2012 35 US State Department 2011 Man Rights Studies: Democratic Peoples’ Republic of Korea thirty six Report in the Special Rapporteur 2012 thirty seven US Condition Department 2011 Human Rights Reports: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea 9

Coverage Department, Directorate-General for Exterior Policies and judicial actions must strictly follow the legislation. 3. International treaties North Korea is usually party to four international human being rights treaties:?? the Worldwide Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), the Convention within the Elimination of Forms of Elegance Against Females (CEDAW), the Convention around the Rights of the Child (CRC), the Foreign Covenant on Economic, Cultural, and Ethnic Rights (ICESCR). 4. Reactions of the foreign community some. 1 . ALGUN

In 03 2012 a UN Human Rights Council adopted an answer expressing issues about the , serious, widespread and systematic man rights violations human privileges violations’ in North Korea. The quality deplored the refusal of the government to , allow [the Special Rapporteur on human being rights] access to the country” 38. For the first time, North Korea’s allies in the Council (including China and tiawan and Russia) did not call for a vote, although instead allowed the resolution to pass by simply consensus 39. This sort of image resolution has, during the past, had very little impact on North Korea.

Each time a previous resolution on man rights ruined the situation in the North, the country’s express news firm, the Korean language Central Reports Agency, leaped the following response: As already reported, the , quality on human being rights’ against the DPRK was railroaded through the 60th ESTE General Assemblage due to the pressure and the lobbying operation of the U. S., Britain, The japanese and other inhospitable forces. The “resolution” is usually peppered with lies and fabrications defaming the useful Korean-style socialist system centered on the well-liked masses.

That was how come it did not get the approval of many affiliate nations at the general assemblage as it was a controversial one which clearly suggested the politicization of the human rights concern, selectivity and double requirements 40. In March 2012, a ESTE resolution regarding human rights in North Korea was passed by simply consensus. 38 39 Record of the Individual Rights Authorities on it is nineteenth session, unedited edition HRW, UN Human Rights Council: North Korea Condemnation Goes Unopposed, 23 Drive 2012 forty Korean Central News Company 2005 15 Human privileges in North Korea

Regardless of the efforts from the UN the Secretary-General plus the Special Rapporteur, the DPRK , remains late in reporting towards the treaty body or uncooperative with the unique procedures’ forty one. There include, however , been some indications of cooperation with other UN physiques, including the Universe Food Plan (WFP), the United Nations Kids Fund, the World Health Organisation and the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. In October 2011, the UN’s Emergency Relief Coordinator visited the DPRK to assess the humanitarian situation 42.

In Come july 1st 2012, a UN quest was naturally access to the country to evaluate destruction caused by the floods. 43 In 2013, Special Rapporteur Darusman, is due to report to a persons Rights Council. North Korea will prepare its following periodic assessment for the same period 44. You will find small signs that the nation is starting to cooperate which includes UN body. 4. installment payments on your ICNK The International Coalition to Stop Offences against Mankind in North Korea (ICNK), established in September 2011, is the 1st international coalition that includes human legal rights organisations by around the world forty-five.

Some forty organisations possess joined the coalition. In April 2012 the ICNK submitted a petition towards the special methods of the Usa Nation Individual Rights Council calling for the UN to aid shut down North Korea’s great gulag system. 46 Delegates of the ICNK met Associates of the European Parliament and EU officials in Brussels on 7 June 2012 to convince them to support the business of a ESTE commission of inquiry in to human legal rights abuses in North Korea. 4. a few. Six-party reveals

The , six-party talks’, which include China, the United States, North and Southern region Korea, Asia and Spain, are geared towards ending North Korea’s nuclear program by using a negotiating procedure. Although human rights aren’t one of the subject areas of discussion for the speaks, the Particular Rapporteur believes that progress in these discussions will assist discussion posts on other issues, like the human legal rights situation forty seven. Six-party talks have not taken place since 12 , 2008. 41 42

Record of the Particular Rapporteur 2012 Report in the Special Rapporteur 2012 43 UN to evaluate North Korea floods as more rainwater falls 44 Report of the Special Rapporteur 2012 forty five The International Coalition to Stop Crimes against Humanity in North Korea (ICNK) 46 ICNK press relase, a few April 2012 47 Record of the Special Rapporteur 2012 11 Insurance plan Department, Directorate-General for Exterior Policies 4. 4. The EU and its particular Member Claims engage in regular political conversation with North Korea, which include through the UN. European Union The EU performs regular political dialogues with all the DPRK.

The European Union established diplomatic relations with all the DPRK in-may 2001, and the majority of EUROPEAN UNION Member Declares have diplomatic relations with all the DPRK. These types of contacts offer an opportunity to talk about human rights. The EU has also regularly raised the void of the North Korean human rights scenario in discussions at ALGUN bodies. Since 1995, the EU continues to be involved in numerous assistance programmes and co-operation activities together with the DPRK. After that, over EUR 366 , 000, 000 in help has been provided in the form of food aid, medical, water and sanitation assistance and agricultural support forty-eight.

The EU supports, nevertheless , the Unique Rapporteur’s , call to rectify faults in creation, distribution and trading systems and to prevent the misallocation of helpful military purposes’ 49. A Country Strategy Conventional paper was used in 03 2002, but its implementation has been suspended. There are currently simply no plans for the new Region Strategy Paper or for development cooperation, although this remains open up for the future 55. As part of the interactive dialogue together with the Special Rapporteur, the EUROPEAN has encouraged , the DPRK’s fresh eadership to use its subsequent universal periodic review in 2014 as an opportunity to enhance its conversation with the foreign community also to provide undisclosed information of its felony code’, which includes subsequent revisions and addendums 51. The EU is additionally involved in several assistance programmes. EEAS: North Korea EEAS, HRC19 , Interactive listenings on Syria, Iran, Burma/Myanmar, North Korea, 12 03 2012 55 EEAS: North Korea 51 EEAS, HRC19 , Fun dialogues in Syria, Iran, Burma/Myanmar, North Korea 49 48 doze Human rights in North Korea 4.. 1 Western Parliament The European Legislative house has used several promises on North Korea, the most recent in May 2012 concerning the required repatriation of North Korean refugees in China 52. In Come july 1st 2010, the Parliament referred to as on the EUROPEAN UNION , to appoint a great EU particular representative within the DPRK to ensure persistent attention and coordination’ 53. Following death of Kim Jong-il, Parliament’s ex – President Jerzy Buzek given a statement asking the North Korean specialists , to make concrete and tangible measures towards enhancing human legal rights conditions’.

This individual called , on the authorities to allow inspection of all types of detention facilities simply by independent international experts and to allow ALGUN Special Rapporteurs to visit the country’. He also urged the country , to engage constructively in individual rights dialogues with the EU’ 54. A public experiencing organised by Parliament’s Subcommittee on Human Rights occurred in May 2012 with the participation of a ex – prisoner, the brother of any Japanese abductee and the US Special Charge Robert King. 52

Euro Parliament quality of 24 May 2012 on the circumstance of North Korean refugees 53 Western Parliament quality of almost eight July 2010 on North Korea fifty four Buzek on the death of Kim Jong-il, 19 January 2011 13 Policy Division, Directorate-General for External Policies 5. Annexes Figure 1: Map of North Korea Source: Un Table you: Data Standard information on North Korea Population Capital Life span 24 589 122 (July 2012 représente. ) Pyongyang 66 years for men, 72 years for women (UN) 14

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