LEXICAL STYLISTIC PRODUCTS Metaphor Authentic metaphors Trite(dead) metaphors Metonymy Metonymy Metonymy is the alternative of one expression for another with which it is connected: ‘The White colored House said…’ (the American government), the press (newspapers and magazines), the cradle(infancy, place of origin), the grave(death), The area applauded, The marble talked, The pot is cooking food, I am fond of Agatha Christie, We didn’t speak because there were the ears all around us, Having been about a phrase away from requiring plastic surgery. Synecdoche Simile
The lady passed through the grove like a shadow, and like a shadow she sailed across the backyard. Cliche I would like to die young at a ripe retirement years.
Irony Paradox Well done! An excellent friend you are! ‘What a noble illustration with the tender laws of this preferred country! , they let the poor get to sleep! ‘ � � � � � Irony should not be confused with connaissance, although they have got very much in accordance. Humour usually causes laughter. But the function of paradox is never to produce a hilarious effect. Irony is generally used to convey a adverse feeling: discomfort, displeasure, shame or repent. Epithet
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Device coveys the subjective attitude of the copy writer as it is used to characterize a subject and showing that to the target audience some properties or highlights of the object. Device aims at analysis of these real estate or features. Heart-burning smile, wild gusts of wind, fantastic dangers, voiceless sands, � � � � � unexplainable beauty, profound feelings, sleepless bay. Set epithets (stock images) are mainly used in ballads and folk-songs: ‘true love’, ‘dark forest’, ‘sweet Sir’, green wood’, ‘good ship’, ‘brave cavaliers’. From the point of view of their compositional framework epithets could possibly be divided into simple, compound, phrase and sentence epithets.
Basic: dreary midnight, brilliant response, sweet smile. Compound: heart-braking sigh, good-for-nothing fellow, Phrase epithets and sentence epithets: 1 . ‘Personally I dislike her (Giaconda’s) smug, mystery-making, come-hither-but-go-away-again-because-butter-wouldn’t-melt-in-my-mouth expression’. 2 . There is also a sort of ‘Oh–what–a-wicked-world-this-is-and-how-I-wish-I-could-do-something-to-make-it-better-and-nobler’ expression regarding Montmorency that has been known to provide for tea s into the eye of pious old ladies and gentlemen.
The reversed epithets, or perhaps metaphorical, are of two styles: 1) two nouns happen to be linked in an of-phrase: a devil of your job, ‘A little Traveling Dutchman of the cab’2) The predicative with the inverted position: ‘Fools that they are’, ‘Wicked as he is’ � � � � � Moved epithets describe the state of a human being but known an rouse,stimulate object: sleepless pillow, unbreakfasted morning, cheerful hours, a great indifferent shoulder joint, sick rooms. Oxymoron Zusammenstellung einander widersprechender begriffe is a mixture of two words in which their very own meaning collide, being opposing in impression: � � � � � Lovely sorrow, happily ugly face, deafening silence, horribly gorgeous.
The following model describes the author’s attitude to Nyc: ‘I dislike its vastness and electric power. It has the poorest millionaires, the littlest great men, the plainest beauties, the minimum skyscrapers of any city I at any time saw. (Satiric mocking) Occult meaning Allusion can be reference to a famous historical, literary, mythological, biblical or perhaps everyday life personality or function, commonly regarded. As a rule no indication with the source has. It’s his Achilles heel. Antonomasia Paradigma is intended to indicate the leading, many characteristic top features of a person or of event.
It categorizes the person and simultaneously indicates both general as well as the particular. Antonomasia can be defined as a variety of allusion: � � � � � Vralman, Molchalin, Mr. Actually zero, Don Juan. Metalepsis Metalepsis is known as a reference to a thing remotely associated with the theme of the speech. ‘I’ve got to get catch the worm down the road morning. ‘ said Martha. (The early bird draws the worm- a proverb) Zeugma Zeugma (syllepsis) is the use of anything in the same grammatical yet different semantic relations. It creates a semantic incongruity which can be often amusing: 1 .
He lost his hat wonderful temper. installment payments on your ‘…and protected themselves with dust and glory. -Mark Twain several. Oae ai? au elizabeth aaa nooaaioa. Iaei a aaeioao, a? oaie – a oieaa? neoao. four. The alphabet was over a blackboard and friendly atmosphere was presently there. 5. ‘And May’s mother always stood on her gentility, and Dora’s mother under no circumstances stood upon anything but her active feet’. Pun Juga (also called paronomasia) is a deliberate distress of comparable – sounding words pertaining to humorous effect. Puns are often used in comments and riddles. E. g. 1 . What is the difference among a schoolmaster and an engine-driver? A single trains the mind and the various other minds the train. ) 2 . The name Justin Time seems like ‘just in time’ 3. I have no clue how earthworms reproduce however you often find them in pairs (pears). 5. Officer. -What steps (measures) would you take if an adversary tank were coming towards you? Soldier. , Long types. Interjections and Exclamatory Phrases Interjections and Exclamatory Words are used to share our solid feelings, they may be conventional icons of human being emotions. The interjection is definitely not a sentence in your essay, it is a phrase with good emotive meaning. Interjections radiate the emotional element over the whole utterance.
Here are some from the meanings that could be expressed by interjections: delight, delight, appreciation, approval, shock, astonishment, terror, regret, discontentment, boredom, sadness, blame, reproach, protest, fear, irony, sarcasm, self-assurance, despair, disgust, amaze, sorrow, and many others. Oh! My oh my! Pooh! Gosh! Alas! Heavens! Dear myself! God! Come on! Look below! By the Master! Bless myself! Humbug! Awful! Awful! Superb! Wonderful! Excellent! Man! Son! Why! Very well! Periphrasis Periphrasis denotes conditions longer phrasing in place of a possible shorter and planer form of expression.
Additionally it is called circumlocution due to the round-about or roundabout way to name a familiar target. There are classic periphrases which are not stylistic devices, they can be synonymic expressions: The provider of jewelry, the victor lord, the leader of website hosts (king), the play of swords(battle), a shield-bearer(warrior), the cap and gown (student), the good sex (women), my better half (my wife). The traditional periphrasis is an important feature of impressive poetry. Periphrasis as stylistic device is known as a new, genuine nomination of an object. Stylistic periphrasis could be divided into rational and figurative. Logical: devices of devastation (pistols), he most pardonable of man weaknesses (love). Figurative periphrasis is based either on metaphor or on metonymy. To tie the knot (to marry), the punctual servant of all function (the sun). There is little difference among metaphor or metonymy and periphrasis. Euphemisms Euphemism is actually a word or a phrase utilized to replace an upsetting word or expression: to die=to expire, to be no more, to leave, to join the majority, to be gone, to conquer the bucket, to give up the ghost, to look west. Therefore , euphemisms will be synonyms which usually aim to create a mild impact. Euphemisms may be divided into a lot of groups: � � � � � 1) spiritual, 2) dental, 3) medical, 4) parliamentary. a woman of a certain type(whore), to glow(to sweat), mental hospital(madhouse), the big C(cancer), sanitation worker(garbage man). Meiosis/Understatement Meiosis/Understatement is known as a figure of speech which in turn intentionally understates something or perhaps implies that it really is less in significance, size, than it truly is. For example , a lawyer defending a schoolboy who set fire to school, may well call the fact of arson a ‘prank’ (i? iaaeea). Hyperbole Hyperbole is a strategic overstatement or exaggeration of your phenomenon or perhaps an object. He was so high that I cannot see his face. Proverbs and Sayings
Proverbs and sayings are brief transactions showing in condensed kind life connection with the community and serving as conventional signs for fuzy ideas. They normally are didactic and image parenting. Proverbs and sayings incorporate some typical features: rhythm, at times rhyme and or alliteration. 1 . ‘Early to bed and early to increase, 2 . Well hidden, out of mind. Iineiaeou iaeaaa? um aoeaaeuiui e/eee ia? aiiniui niuneii. Aeaia ioeoa 2 iieaoo. Iiaiai? ee eia? o oieuei aoeaaeuiue ieai. Ai? con aiyouny- and? anouy ia aeaaou. Epigrams Epigrams are terse, amusing statements, exhibiting the turn of mind from the originator.
Epigram is a stylistic device akin to a saying, the only big difference being that epigrams are coined by people whose names we know, while proverbs are the coinage of the people. ‘A The almighty that can be understood is not really a God. ‘ Quotations Offer is a repeating of a expression or declaration from a book, speech and so on used by the pattern of illustration, evidence or like a basis for additional speculation for the matter. Simply by repeating the utterance in a new environment, we affix to the utterance an importance. Allegory Type is a device by which the names of items or characters are used figuratively, representing more general points, good or bad ualities. A type of love knot is Representation. Personification Representation is a form of comparison in which human features, such as emotions, personality, behaviuor and so on, will be attributed to an animal, object or perhaps idea. The proud lion surveyed his kingdom. The main function of personification should be to make summary ideas clearer to the visitor by contrasting them to everyday human encounter. How shortly hath Period, the subtle thief of youth, � � � � � Stolen in the wing my own three and twentieth season! Personification can often be represented by the masculine or perhaps feminine pronouns for what they are called of animals, objects or forces of nature.
He is used for sunlight, the Wind, to get the names of animals (The Cat that walked all by himself), pertaining to abstract symbole associated with power and fierceness-Death, Fear, Warfare, Love. She actually is used for precisely what is regarded as alternatively gentle (the Moon, Character, Beauty, Desire, Mercy. In neutral design there also some associations of certain adjective and gender. The names of countries, if the country is not really considered as only geographical place, are termed as feminine (England is proud of her poets). The names of vessels and automobiles are also known as womanly.
Anthropomorphism Anthropomorphism is the form of personification consisting of creating imagery persons of inanimate things. Common for example naming one’s car or perhaps begging a machine to work. The usage of anthropomorphized family pets has a extended tradition in literature and art. They are used to show stereotypical character types, in order to quickly convey the characteristics the author expects them to own. Examples include Aesop’s fables, popular television personas, Tom and Jerry, Mickey mouse Mouse and a lot of other funny animals.