Choosing a research method Webb, 3rd there’s r., Westergaard, H., Trobe, K.
, Steel, D., (2008) WHILE Level Sociology, Brentwood: Napier Press l. 162 Sociologists use a variety of different research methods and sources of info to collect information and test their ideas. In this Matter, we shall identify the main strategies and sources used in Sociology. We shall also look at the various kinds of data the particular methods develop. We shall likewise examine the factors that influence sociologists’ choice of what topic they will research, and at some of the key practical, assumptive and honest (moral) elements that impact their range of which ways to employ.
Types of data G. 163 Sociologists use a wide selection of different methods and sources to obtain info (information or perhaps evidence) about society. To generate sense on this variety, we can classify them into: ¢ Primary and secondary options for data. ¢ Quantitative and qualitative info. Primary and secondary options for data Main data can be information gathered by sociologists themselves because of their own purposes. These reasons may be to acquire a first ” hand ‘picture’ of a group or world, or to check a hypothesis (an untested theory).
Options for gathering principal data include: ¢ Cultural surveys: these kinds of involve requesting people inquiries in a crafted questionnaire or perhaps an interview. ¢ Participant statement: the sociologist joins within the activities from the crew he or she is learning. ¢ Tests: sociologists hardly ever use clinical experiments, but they sometimes use field experiments and the comparison method. A major advantage of applying primary data is that sociologists may be able to gather precisely the information they need to test their hypotheses.
However , this can often be high priced and time intensive. Secondary info is data that has been gathered by somebody else for their individual purposes, although which the sociologist can then use. Sources of extra data include: ¢ Recognized statistics manufactured by government on the wide range of problems, such as crime, divorce, into the unemployment, as well as other statistics created by charities, businesses, churches and also other organisations. ¢ Documents including letters, schedules, photographs, standard (government) reviews, novels, newspaper publishers and tv broadcasts.
Employing secondary info can be a quick and cheap way of doing research, since someone else has recently produced the data. However , people who produce it might not be interested in the same questions because sociologists, therefore secondary resources may not offer exactly the info that sociologists need. Quantitative and qualitative data Quantitative data identifies information within a numerical kind. Examples of quantitative data consist of official statistics on how many girls passed five or more GCSEs or on the percentage of marriages closing in divorce.
Similarly, info collected by simply opinion forms and market research surveys often comes in the form of quantitative data ” for example , around the proportion with the electorate planning to vote for a particular party or perhaps how many people take holidays in another country. Qualitative data, by contrast gives a ‘feel’ so that something is just like ” for example , what it is like to acquire good GCSE results, or perhaps for one’s matrimony to end in divorce. Proof gathered by utilizing participant statement aims to give to us a sense of what feels like to become in that person’s ‘shoes.
These methods provides rich descriptions of these someones feelings and experiences. Elements influencing range of method S. 164 Offered the a comprehensive portfolio of methods offered, how do we select the right one pertaining to our analysis? Different methods and types of data will vary strengths and limitations and need to be able to evaluate these kinds of when choosing which to use. We can take a look at these advantages and limitations in terms of a number of practical, honest (moral) and theoretical concerns. Practical concerns Different strategies present different practical challenges. These include: Time
Different strategies require distinct amounts of time and this might influence the sociologists’ choice. For example , huge ” level surveys may possibly employ lots of interviewers and data ” inputting personnel and cost you a great deal of cash. By contrast, a little ” scale project including a lone researcher using participant statement may be more affordable to carry out, nonetheless it can take a long period to total. The researcher’s access to methods can be a significant factor in determining which methods they make use of. A well ” known mentor will probably gain access to more study funds compared to a young pupil, for example.
Requirements of money bodies Analysis institutes, businesses and other organisations that provide the funding pertaining to research may need the leads to be in a particular form. For example , a govt department money research into educational achievements may have got targets to get pass costs and so require quantitative info to see if these goals are becoming achieved. What this means is the sociologist will have to use a method able of producing this sort of data, just like questionnaires or structured selection interviews. Personal abilities and attributes
Each sociologist possesses distinct personal skills, and this may affect their ability to make use of different methods. For example , participator observation generally requires to be able to mix conveniently with other folks as well as very good powers of observation and recall, while in ” depth interviews call for a great ability to set up a rapport (relationship of accord and trust) with the interviewee. Not all sociologists have these kinds of qualities therefore some might have difficulty applying these strategies. Subject matter It could be much harder to study a particular group or subject simply by one method than by another.
For example , it could prove tough for a male sociologist to study an all ” female group by means of player observation, when written forms may be worthless for learning those who simply cannot read. Research opportunity Occasionally the opportunity to execute research happens unexpectedly which means that it may not be conceivable to use unstructured methods including questionnaires, which will take longer to get ready. For example , a Glasgow bunch leader presented ‘James Patrick’ (1973) the possibility ‘out in the blue’ to spend time along with his gang.
With little time to get ready, ‘Patrick’ acquired no option but to make use of participant observation. In other conditions, the investigator may have been capable of set up the study opportunity cautiously beforehand and have plenty of time to choose their strategies. P. 165, , , , , , Ethical issues Ethics refers to meaning issues of right and wrong. Strategies that sociologists use to examine people might raise a variety of moral questions. The British Sociological Association sets out guidelines for the carry out of exploration, including the subsequent principles: Educated consent
Exploration participants (the people staying studied) ought to be offered the justification to refuse. The researcher should also tell them regarding all relevant aspects of your research so that they can produce a fully up to date decision. Approval should be received before research begins, and if the study is usually lengthy, again at periods throughout the procedure. Confidentiality and privacy Experts should maintain your identity of research members secret to be able to help to prevent possible negative effects on them. Researchers should also esteem the level of privacy of exploration participants.
Private information concerning exploration participants should be kept private. Effects on research participants Researchers should be aware of the possible effects of their focus on those they study. These kinds of could include police involvement, harm to employment prospects, social exclusion and psychological harm. Wherever possible, experts should try to anticipate and stop such dangerous effects. Vulnerable groups Special care should be taken exactly where research members are particularly weak because of their era, disability, or physical or mental health.
For example , when learning children in schools, analysts should have consider for issues of child safety. They should get the consent of both the kid and the father or mother, and they will need to provide information in terminology that the kid can appreciate. Covert research Covert studies when the researcher’s identity and research goal are concealed from the people being researched. This can generate serious honest problems, including deceiving or perhaps lying in people in order to succeed their trust or obtain information. Evidently, it is difficult to gain knowledgeable consent and keeping the research or their purpose top secret.
However , a few sociologists argue that the use of hidden methods may be justified in most circumstances. These may include getting access to regions of social lifestyle closed to investigation by secretive, deviant or strong groups. Theoretical issues This kind of refers to questions about what we believe society is similar to and if we can attain an accurate, sincere picture than it. Our thoughts about these issues will affect the kinds of methods we favour using. Validity A legitimate method is one that produces a true or real picture of what something is really like.
That allows the researcher to get nearer to the truth. Various sociologists argue that qualitative methods such as participant observation give to us a more valid or sincere account of what it is love to be a member of a group than quantitative methods such as forms can. It is because participant observation can give all of us a more deeply insight through first hand experience. Reliability One other word for reliability is replicability. A reproduction is a definite copy of something, and so a reliable method is one which, once repeated simply by another specialist, gives the same results.
For example , in Physics or Hormone balance, different research workers can repeat the same research and obtain the same results every time. In Sociology, quantitative methods including written forms tend to develop more reliable effects than qualitative methods such as unstructured interviews. p. 166 Representativeness Representativeness refers to whether or not the people all of us study can be a typical get across ” portion of the group we are thinking about. Imagine, for instance , that we want to know about the effects of divorce upon children.
It would take a great deal of time and money to analyze every kid of divorced parents, and we might only be able to manage to study a sample of, say, 100 this sort of children. Yet , if we make sure that our sample is consultant or standard of the larger population, we are able to then employ our findings to make generalisations about almost all children of divorced parents, without basically having to examine all of them. Huge ” range quantitative surveys that use complex sampling processes to select their sample may produce representative data.
Methodological perspective Sociologists’ choice of method is also motivated by their methodological perspective ” their view of what society is like and how we have to study it. There are two contrasting viewpoints on the selection of methods: positivism and interpretivism. Positivists ” prefer quantitative data, keep pace with discover habits of behavior, see Sociology as a technology. Interpretivists ” prefer qualitative data, strive to understand sociable actors’ meanings, reject the view outside the window that Sociology is a technology.
Why carry out positivists and Interpretivists like different types of data? Positivists and Interpretivists acquire and work with different types of info: positivists prefer quantitative data, while Interpretivists prefer qualitative. This is because they earn different presumptions about the nature of society and how we should research it. Positivists: ¢ Assume that society has a objective truthful reality ” it is present ‘out there’, just like the physical world. ¢ Society applies an affect over the members, methodically shaping their very own behaviour patterns. Positivist research uses quantitative data to discover and measure these habits of behaviour. ¢ By simply analysing quantitative data, positivists seek to find out the objective scientific laws of cause and effect that determine conduct. ¢ Positivists thus choose questionnaires, methodized interviews, tests and official statistics. These produce info that is the two reliable and representative. Interpretivists: ¢ Decline the idea of a target social actuality ” all of us construct truth through the symbolism we give to situations, not really the product of external causes. Our activities are based on the meanings we offer to circumstances, not the merchandise of exterior forces. ¢ Interpretivist study uses qualitative data to discover and identify the sociable actor’s ‘universe of meaning’. ¢ By simply interpreting qualitative data, Interpretivists seek to gain a subjective understanding of actors’ meanings and ‘life worlds’. ¢ Interpretivists thus favor participant observation, unstructured interviews, and personal papers. These generate data that is valid. Functionalists and Marxists often have a positivist procedure.
They find society being a large ” scale (macro ” level) structure that shapes each of our behaviour. By contrast, interactionists prefer an interpretivist approach. They get a tiny ” level view of society, concentrating on small ” scale, face ” to face interactions. The sociologist’s assumptive perspective is generally the most important element when choosing which in turn method to make use of. Whenever possible, they will want to obtain the type of data ” quantitative or qualitative ” that their perspective views because so many appropriate.
However , practical and ethical factors usually limit the choice of approach. Just because a sociologist prefers a certain kind of data, doesn’t imply that they can merely go ahead and accumulate it. Time, resources, get, consent, privacy and so on are typical constraints prove choice. Finally, even large chance may well determine the method used. For example , David Tuckett (2001) details how one postgraduate Sociology student found himself taken ill with tuberculosis and confined to a hospital ward, so this individual used this kind of as a chance to conduct a participant observation study.
Range of topic l. 167. Before you choose which approach to use, sociologists need to make a decision what theme they wish to analyze. Several factors influence their particular choice: Theoretical perspective The sociologist’s theoretical perspective is a major affect upon their particular choice of exploration topic. For instance , a New Proper researcher might study the consequence of welfare benefits on the regarding lone ” parent households, since the concept of welfare dependency is central to their perspective.
By contrast, a feminist specialist is more likely to pick to study domestic violence, as opposition to gender oppression lies in the middle of Feminist theory. Society’s values Sociologists themselves are part of the society they study and so are affected by their values. As they values transform, so will the focus of analysis. The rise of Feminism in the 1960s and 1970s triggered a focus in gender inequality and the environmentalist concerns from the 21st century include generated desire for ‘green crimes’ such as critical pollution and also the unlawful transport of elemental material.
Financing bodies Many research needs funding via an external body system. These systems include gov departments, charitable organisations and businesses. As the funding body is paying for the research, it will determine the topic to be investigated. For instance , one of the major interpersonal concerns of New Labour governments after 97 was the ‘social exclusion’ of some deprived groups. Because of this, government departments had been keen to fund research projects to check into the causes and effects of social exclusion. Functional factors
Useful factors, including the inaccessibility of certain scenarios to the researcher, may also limit what topic they are able to study. For example , although sociologists may want to study the ways in which global corporations generate their decisions, this may not be conceivable because these are produced in secrecy. Summary Sociologists check their ideas using quantitative or qualitative data. Sociologists obtain principal data themselves, using strategies including forms, interviews and observation. Extra data will be produced by others but utilized by sociologists.
In choosing a technique, sociologists consider several issues into account: ¢ Practical issues include some funding. ¢ Ethical problems include whether the researcher deceives the subjects. ¢ Theoretical problems include validity (does the technique give a sincere picture? ), reliability (can it end up being replicated? ) and representativeness (does this study a normal cross ” section? ). Perspective as well affects range of method. Positivists prefer quantitative data, interpretivists favour qualitative data. Selection of topic is likewise affected by society’s values and funding bodies.