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Literature, Education


“No person shall be denied the right to education”

(European Conference 1950, Initially protocol Article 2)

“Discrimination against any individual on the basis of incapacity is a infringement of the natural dignity and worth of the human person”

“States functions recognize the right of folks with disabilities to education” (Article 26)

(Convention around the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2006)

Education must be for all, without exceptions. The very last years, the void of disability as well as the different ways in which different communities try to way it, include started to fascination science and especially social sciences. Eventually, 4 models of disability were made and each one of these has an effect on both public opinion and the legislation.

Thus, human being rights in education and special education were affected, when they were formed, by simply one or more models of disability. With this essay, I will try to show the way in which human rights happen to be linked to the models of disability. Firstly, I will take a look at and examine each one of the designs and their beginnings, and seite an seite to this, there will be a brief evaluation between some issues of some specific models. Second of all, I will evaluate and connect the conditions of citizenship and inclusive education. Additionally, I will discuss disability and special education. And finally, in the first portion I will talk about the Salamanca statement and framework to use it on particular needs education and with which model of incapacity it is connected. In the second part I will refer to how things are in Greece so far as special education is concerned, in line with the ministry of education and based on my own experience.

Precisely what is Disability?

According to the WHOM (World Wellness Organization)which has been used as the basis for two national studies of impairment in Great britain (Harris, year 1971, Martin, Meltzer and Eliot, 1988), the definition of disability is: inside the context of health experience, an impairment is virtually any loss or abnormality of psychological, physical or anatomical structure or function. In addition, the definition of disability is: in the circumstance of well being experience, impairment is any restriction or perhaps lack (resulting from a great impairment) of ability to execute an activity in the manner or within the range which is considered normal for a person. On the other hand, the definition that DOTS PER INCH (Disabled Peoples’ International) gives for impairment is: impairment is the useful limitation within the individual caused by physical, mental or physical impairment. And the definition intended for disability is definitely: the loss or perhaps limitation of opportunities to experience the normal your life of the community on an similar level with others because of physical and social limitations (DPI, 1982).

In today’s world, that people are living, handicap has begun being considered as something universal, a worldwide experience. Through disability, we all study especially the values as well as the position from the people to disability, and since a consequence, we all study just how each world treats it is members, including disabled people.

The interest pertaining to disabilities is a combination of the academic interest, in explaining what disability genuinely is and its effects on all the fields of contemporary society, of the active supporters and workers and the widespread character that disability requires (Chard ou al. 1999, Blendon and Benson, 2001)

Disability is known as a usual term, but virtually it refers to people with some type of bodily or perhaps mental-intellectual incapacity and because of this they cannot be involved in sundry activities. There are folks who claim that this kind of inability of disabled visitors to participate is a consequence in the barriers that are raised by the majority of “normal” people. This can be a socially constructed attitude towards people with impairments. However , handicap is not just thinking which bring about discrimination, but also institutionalized practices. Precisely what is considered to be “normal” for abled-bodied is designed for disabled one particular, such as the ability to walk up and down stairs or to cross the street.

Disability does not only matter the person alone who is handicapped but it impacts the whole world as well, and it also has economic, ethnic and political ramifications to each society. With the interference of disabled activists and businesses, in the 60’s a lot of national government authorities included guidelines in guidelines through which the rights of disabled folks are protected and secured. A difference was made last 1981 by United Nations in which the responsibility of the government to provide equal privileges to people with any kind of disability was recognized. In 1980 the vast majority of academics were interested practically entirely in the medical reason of disability (Barnes, Oliver, Barton, 2002). A very evident example was Talcott Parsons (1951) who applied sociological methods and concepts to the understanding of health and illness, and medicine generally speaking, in their sociable context.

Medical unit

The medical model of disability is targeted on the groups that are created, the incapable and the non-disabled. Someone’s disability is his personal problem that needs a medical solution in addition to not any concerns or any obstacles which are due to society. The focus is not really on the the use of the handicapped person, but on the disability of the person and either the cure (if there is one), or a specific assistance to conquer the effects of that impairment (Indiana Law Diary, vol 83).

For Parsons every form of sickness falls away from the norm. In the upcoming many years, there was a major concentration on ‘mental illness’ through the sociological perspective (Journal of Health and Interpersonal Behavior, vol 17). Additionally , Foucault (1975, 1979) contended that mental illness and all the kinds of acts that diverge happen to be something more than social constructs made by the dominant group.

All research relevant to mental illness refer to economic or social complications and their implications but nor of them really look into the meaning of what is called “individual” or “medical” as a sort of disability. No-one extended the theories by mental illness to any various other physical incapacity or additional impairments, as a consequence, handicapped people were socially and financially deprived (Segall, A. 1976)

Charitable organisation model

The second type of disability is the “charity model”. In this style we look at the non-reflex agencies. You will find organizations which were shaped for many who are impaired and they are run by “normal” people and these companies are completely different from the organizations of incapable people (which are run by the handicapped people) (Barton, 1996).

The tradition of charities is very old and particularly for The uk it extends back into the Commercial Revolution. These types of charities had a wide range of careers and they were present in a lot of sociable activities including religion, entertainment, education and much more. Our matter focuses there, where the charities assumed the role of social wellbeing, when they got transformed their interests in line with the different varieties of diseases. As much as Britain is involved, disabled people started to be little by little excluded via work, when the time of industrialization and the machines came. This happened for the reason that work was performed for able-bodied people and thus of this, incapable people were ruined to rely upon others to produce a living (Finkelstein, 1981b).

To start with, church and poorhouses where those who were helping handicapped people to live and after a while the prepared charity was added too. But gradually, as the state of hawaii took the role with the social wellbeing, disabled people began to incorporate some economic benefits from the social system not to mention we have the creation of some centers where that they could stay, such as day centers (Barnes, 1990, Brenton, 1985, Helpful, 1988).

The flourish of charities was at the 20th century. There was many people that were filled there, some were volunteers and some others were salaried staff of execs (Brandon, 1988). In fact , even though some agencies filled volunteers and called themselves as non-reflex, they were not really, actually these people were nongovernmental plus they did not have any benefit from the charitable trust and their just aim was to help (Drake, 1994). The majority of the charities backed the medical model and so they emphasized around the treatment of the consumer (example: the cure) or they intervened in some other ways, for example , simply because they knew the fact that use of public transportation was as well difficult to get the incapable people, they provided minibuses to those who needed it. But the best thing is that the handicapped people did not prefer this implies of vehicles because of the fact that they were just for disabled andthis was precisely the ‘problem’. It was something that made a distinction between the able-bodied and the impaired. Here lies the difference between the organizations which are run by the disabled people, their target was on campaigns and proposals for redesigning the form of community vehicles. The society of the disabled criticized the traditional non profit organizations mostly because of the philosophy, which did not unite them with almost all but segregated them (Barton, 1996).

Administrative model

Another model of impairment is the administrative model. Finkelstein, one of the creators of the interpersonal model, criticizes the explanatory ability from the social style as far as the positioning of incapable people in modern societies is concerned. This individual argues (1993) that the administrative model of handicap is the just model which combines all of the forms that a helping support can take, whether or not they come through the state or from voluntaries. “The remedy and the care forms of intervention are administered within the therapy and personal-care services respectively” (Finkelstein, 93: 37). The administrative unit is some sort of dichotomous and it has several impact on the legislation. This model refers to particular fields just like education. An element of this unit is that in the event that someone ‘deserves’, depending on a person’s impairment, to get called impaired he has, as a result of this kind of, access to several benefits. This can be a sad fact that disabled individuals have to pass specific tests to be able to “prove” their particular impairment. Actually there have been some instances of people with severe disabilities who whilst they deserved the advantages, they were miserable of them, since they did not fit into the “boxes” which are offered by the management model. Therefore , sometimes it appears to be unfair toward a specific number of disabled persons, if they do not fulfill the conditions which are collection legally (French, 1994).

Social model

Your fourth and last model may be the social. Returning to the nineteenth century we have the rising of powerhouse organizations enthusiastic by people who have disabilities. There have been many protests in many countries such as the U. H. and Canada, for the discrimination they may have encountered. But the case of Britain was anything special and important, as a new plus more radical way was inserted to hypotheses, so now they will refer to, because “the interpersonal model of disability”.

The organizations run by simply disabled persons (for example the Upias) made the earth fertile for most disabled activists to think again about the whole thought around handicap. By contrast, the social interpretation of impairment argues that folks with licensed or identified impairments, regardless of cause, will be disabled by society’s inability to accommodate the requirements. The social model focuses on the interpersonal inability to add the incapable with whatever disability that they might have. Mainly because disability does not connote they’ve failure, this method focuses on the different obstacles like social, financial or personal created against impairment.

Incapacity studies were initially approached by medical sociology and several perspectives were raised. There has been a lot of research enthusiastic by sensible medical and different services of health concerns. For example , in Great britain, despite the sociological aspects of the social version, it was a team from your Open College or university (1975), which developed the first research for handicap. This course originated with the aid of a South African clinical psychologist named Vic Finkelstein and a lot of people from the U. T. who were either disabled or disadvantaged by the educational system, were captivated. Through this course, named “The Handicapped Person in the Community”, people centered on the improvement of their skills, so as to help in a healthier way the handicapped people to carry out their best help out with a better way, as far as their autonomy is concerned.

The social type of disability presented the “big idea” (Hasler, 1993), to people who were incapable. But it required some time before it found acceptance from the universities from the UK, so far as sociology departments are concerned. In comparison, in the U. S. and Canada incapacity entered the universities in the ’70s. And again we now have a combination of activism and school as well.

Over the last years we have a more revolutionary perspective, through which supporters were a small band of disabled students who were relevant to cultural or perhaps human research, especially in Australasia and The united states. As a consequence of that, there was a development of a more critical field of analysis focused on the web link between socio-political position as well as the approach from the social unit (Rioux and Bach, 1994, Davis, 95, Linton, 98, Albrecht et al., 2001). All of these building created a prevalent interest among research and academic studies and at the same time signified the rising of the involvement in socio-political approach, where British writers initial shed light on.

In 1970, in Britain, the term “disability” began to vary from a strictly medical standpoint to a even more sociological point of view, because people started to see incapacity as a form of social segregation and exclusion. There was an organization which followed this movements, the UPIAS (Union in the Physically Impaired Against Segregation), for which incapacity is seen as a great obstacle that social agencies put to people who have any kind of disability, excluding these people from several social actions. Thomas Jean argues that UPIAS affirmation is that disability comes into lumination when activities of handicapped people are constrained by specific social structures. So impairment, he claims, is definitely not suggestions to the constraint or the insufficient activity as it is in the ICIDH argument. It is not that impairment does not go with limitations of activities, but this does not make up disability (Thomas, 1999).

Based on the disability movements which included the organizations that were run by simply disabled people argues that for incapable people, reconstruction of the society can be the cure for their disability problems. This kind of movement dissociates itself from your mental model and it has to do together with the social model (Cole, 2000)

By contrast for the social model, in biomedicine the focus is definitely on the deviations of the systems and thoughts from the cultural norms of each and every individual. This “medical model” relies on the fast developing genetic science, to eliminate the disorders. So , relating to this model, disability is equated with impairment.

In the perspective of rehabilitation technology, the focus adjustments to a different region, it seems being very important to ensure that the disabled to adapt and adjust an even more “normal” your life. It’s a good belief that a lot of difficulties will be caused unavoidably by the disability. And this combination of belief, that on the one hand, ommissions and limitations in different forms of activities result from impairment and on the other hand the interpersonal barriers which can be raised against disability, turns into ICIDH (International Classification of Impairments Afflictions and Handicaps). In 1970, we have the development of a company the ICIDH, organized simply by Philip Solid wood, Elizabeth Bradley and Mike Bury. ICIDH, wanted to maneuver further, so that it tried to make clear what impairment is but not from a purely bio-medical perspective. To get ICIDH, incapacity is any kind of deficiency or perhaps restriction of ability to perform an activity in a specific approach which is deemed normal for the human being. So , ICIDH will not equate handicap with impairment, there is a critical possibility that some sociable factors can easily influence some restrictions of activities (Bury, 1997, 2000).


An extra term that I would like to put because it is essential to examine, is a term of citizenship. It is just a definition which according to Barbalet (1988: 1) describes who is and who is not just a member of culture. To be named citizen, it means the ability to engage in the decisions that shape his/her culture. Additionally , it’s the ability of someone to have usage of work, travel, leisure, and generally, it is the political, civil and social legal rights of people (Marshall, 1950). And so we must consider in what way we “see” and strategy disabled persons.

In my opinion, education is a primary human right. Education may set an individual free and offer him/her electric power. However , there are a lot of people (adults and children) who happen to be deprived of education, and one of the many causes can be several particular exceptional need that an individual may well have.

Disability and special education

Inside the 19th[? 1] century, we had schools by which elementary education was provided for all. The system, on which schools based their very own education, was not very helpful intended for disabled kids, because it was based on storage tests and learning by simply heart. This was a very unfavorable factor for youngsters who was missing specific skills. As a result, it began to be clear that the amount of difficulty was increased as much as the growing inability of the child was increased too (Cole, 2000). It was simply after 1921 and after a whole lot of pressure that some categories of impairment were acknowledged as such (epilepsy, deafness, blindness, mental defectiveness and physical defectiveness). Therefore , creating particular schools or special classes within regular schools were now being considered and children who had been labeled as handicapped could go and be well-informed there. Little by little, more types were added in the term of disablement. After 1950, a lot of special schools were created and kids, who were labeled as ineducable, in accordance to Mental Deficiency Work (1913), got the right to end up being educated in those universities (Cole, 2000). In my opinion, it was a very inappropriate way of splendour against individuals children who had been labeled as ineducable and it was something that implemented them through their life.

After 75, the idea of an even more inclusive education entered the stage. Inspite of the economic price, many frequent schools had been forced to recognize disabled kids in an effort to incorporate them. But nevertheless, there are many challenges in standard schools that will make the life of disabled children difficult. Given that there are exceptional schools, regular schools is not going to change all their strategies dramatically so as to incorporate children with impairment (Collin, 2000).


There have been a lot of attempts to support specially education. One of those efforts is definitely the “Salamanca declaration and platform for action” (1994), which in turn took place in Spain and it had been organized by simply UNESCO plus the Spanish authorities, in which 80 governments required part and in addition they tried to get policies which promote specially education and prepare all of the schools to embrace all of the individuals whatever impairment is definitely and to support their right to learn. Special education has to be included in the mainstream schools and not be considered as an remote issue (Salamanca, 1994). “The challenge facing the specially school is that of developing a child- centred pedagogy capable of successfully educating all children, including all who have serious down sides and disabilities” (Salamanca, 1991: 6). Even as we can assume after reading the Salamanca statement, the policies depend on the social model. Because after understanding the several interpersonal barriers which usually exist, there may be an effort to bring those obstacles down through some plans and co-operation from almost all (governments-schools-citizens). For instance , in the assertion it is called that ” we believe and proclaim that: “… education systems should be designed and educational programs integrated to take into account the wide diversity of these qualities and needs… those with particular educational requirements must have access to regular universities which cater to them within a child-centred pedagogy capable of meeting these types of needs” (2004: viii). And “we demand all government authorities and need them to: supply the highest coverage and budgetary priority to enhance their education systems in order to include all children regardless of individual differences or difficulties…encourage and assist in the contribution of parents, areas and corporation of persons with disabilities in the preparing and decision-making processes with regards to provision to get special educational needs…invest higher effort in early identification and intervention approaches, as well as in business aspects of inclusive education” (2004: ix). We are able to assume that the statement forces the says to do whatever it takes so as to integrate all the incapable people in the educational system. They keep pace with have regular schools but with inclusive alignment so as to never have elegance between human beings.

Inclusive education

Inclusive education is once all children no matter what sort of impairment they have, are able to head to their community schools to be educated, and, for regional schools to be able and appropriately willing to provide every one of the facilities that children may require. There has to be a transformation of the program in that way, thus all children can be well-informed in the same way, with out some learners having unique benefits against others. It is additionally important, through collaborative learning or through specific reading books or images to help children devoid of disabilities to understand how to coexist and work with impaired children. This is certainly a process which is helpful and the children can easily learn and benefit from that. The learning support in each class, it would be extremely effective. Generally, we must create actions which promote the cooperation of all children, to give possibility to all handicapped children to provide themselves and build up their very own self-esteem. Additionally , parental consulting is promoted, because it is good for children to become encouraged by their parents to feel more independent. There are a lot of other university policies which can be based on the social type of disability (CSIE, 1996, 2000).

Regarding Greece

In Portugal, the education is usually compulsory and supplies primary and secondary education and there is post-compulsory secondary education. According to the change of 97, it consists of two types of schools: the unified top secondary colleges and the technological vocational educational schools. Alongside the mainstream colleges, we have special colleges of all the educational stages, which admit learners with particular educational demands, such as particular school intended for deaf persons or unique school to get blind people. A child can go to a popular school which has integration classes or can visit a special college, depending on the impairment that the child may have. The decision, on which school children will go to, is made through special education advisers as well as the Center of Diagnostic Analysis and support, so as to diagnose the educational particular needs in the child. After that, they select the most appropriate institution unit that may contribute to the better integration of the child. The progress of the child is usually evaluated from time to time. From the division of Special Education and the process report of 2004-2007 we can see that a great amount of the usage classes were created inside the mainstream schools at all levels of the educational system (, in Greek 20/03/11). On the one hand, there are a few special educational institutions for example , intended for deaf or blind kids and there is still no insurance plan to include individuals children inside the mainstream educational institutions, so as never to create any kind of discrimination. However, those universities specialize in several specific impairments, so they can target only upon those kids with the certain disability. The best of education for all and inclusive education is a little little contradictory if so, because the popular schools in Greece, for example , cannot admit deaf children in the same class with children who can hear.

In Greece, there exists an effort to add children with specific impairments, such as learning difficulties or perhaps mild kinds of mental retardation, by teaching the educators to be able to handle those little one’s requirements. An extremely interesting thing is that, even though the curriculum is the same for all the children whatever the school is and focuses on the equal rights of learning, if someone does not speak the same language there will be an important problem because he will not be capable to keep up with other students. Therefore , there are some established qualifications somebody to be able to have the same education together with the others. In a few circumstances, like the immigrant’s children, if they do not know the vocabulary at all, it can be very difficult so they can catch up with the rest of the students, and perhaps those children will be omitted because they don’t fit in it of requirements. But though, there are some multicultural schools ( on 25/03/11), which are beneficial for children whom do not know the chinese language very well. As much as special education is concerned, the special universities are based on the segregation from the children and their base is definitely the medical type of disability, because they rank children on the basis of their disability, however , all their disability does not make impossible for people to understand and be knowledgeable, so it is sort of coming into the social style.

All kinds of children, either the disabled or perhaps the immigrants, need a specific sort of education. Currently, Greece is not all set to include every one of the children within a mainstream university. It would be ideal if we could have a mainstream school which may admit all of the children no matter their impairment or their lack, but this is a project which needs a lot of time. And after almost all, this is the way that we really should be oriented to.


To sum up, with this essay we examined the four types of disability and exactly how they consider impairment and disability. Each one of these has its own viewpoint as far as disability and treatment of disabled individuals are concerned. All of the models possess those who support their ideas and those who criticize all of them. And through this process we are able to examine the weaknesses of each and every one. Basically, the human legal rights, in the last years, are based on the social type of disability, since they declare that people have the right to be educated regardless of what impairment they may have, and taking into consideration the a lot of social obstacles that exist inside the societies, they try to deal with the problems and through new policies on schools to integrate each of the children. In addition , about the various legislations that societies have got, we can be aware that they may have been completely affected by several models of impairment. For example , in Greece, disabled people still have some economical benefits from the welfare express (which is a characteristic in the charity model). Furthermore, the administrative unit has some impacts on the legislation, because, by way of example entering a special school or perhaps attending integration classes, the kid has to go through some tests which are predetermined and if your child fits in the characteristics that the guidelines has presented about handicap or special needs. Then your child may officially go to a special university or to combine in a popular school and attend incorporation classes. Additionally, the interpersonal model offers its effects on the regulations, because there is an attempt to reconstruct schools by simply embedding several policies in such a way to incorporate all children, as human being rights file. As far as exceptional schools and mainstream schools are concerned, in my view, it could be perfect if we had one particular school perfectly prepared that could accept any child, irrespective of its impairment. This would be required for an effort to accomplish inclusive education. Special schools are not always negative, nevertheless I think why these schools must accept only some very seriously disabled children, that may be dangerous for the rest of the pupils. Any less extreme impairment, together with the appropriate preparing from the part of educational institutions, would be good to be a part of mainstream colleges.

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