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A case research of joint venture banks in nepal

A Case Examine of Partnership Banks in Nepal Essay

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Using the info set published by joint venture banks within their annual information, and NRB in its supervision annual studies, this newspaper examines the financial overall health of joint venture banks in the CAMEL platform. The health check up conducted based on publicly readily available financial data concludes the fact that health of joint venture banking institutions is better than that of the additional commercial financial institutions. In addition , the perusal of indicators of various components of CAMEL indicates the fact that financial health of partnership banks are generally not so strong to manage the possible mass shocks for their balance sheet and their health can be fair.

THE HISTORY OF RECENT commercial bank industry goes back to 1937 A. M in which season Nepal Traditional bank Ltd. was incorporated. Till 1984, financial sector was closed to private sector and foreign investors. HMG/Nepal started to liberalize the economical sector inside the first half the 1980s. However it speeded up this process simply in early nineties. Private sector rushed in the finance industries especially following your restoration of democracy in 1990.

Most of the industrial banks arrived to operation during the decade of 1990s. Authorities of any countries extremely monitors and controls the finance industry even inside the liberalized market economy. Govt does and so due to its large gravity in the national overall economy, and to increase the confidence of private sector in its financial system.

Nepal Rastra Bank (NRB) as a great apex financial authority from the country began to monitor and control the finance market especially at the end of the 1990s by issuing the directions to the financial institutions (FIs). It initiated the offsite and onsite direction of FIs to maintain all their sound monetary health and to develop upthe confidence of private sector in the liberalized financial system and protect the eye of the buyers. It has used the CAEL (capital adequacy, asset top quality, earning and liquidity) program to check the health of FIs. It includes yet to work with the CAMELS to evaluate the financial functionality and check up the economical health. Impartial outsiders also can not work with all pieces of CAMELS to check up the economic health of FIs in Nepal as a result of full disclosures of essential financial details to outsiders. NRB determined FIs to reveal the economical information in uniform approach only inside the fiscal 12 months (FY) 2001/02. In this conventional paper, attempt has been made to check-up the financial health of joint venture financial institutions in the platform of BUCK.

1 . Reason of Regular Overall health Check up of economic Banks

Not only the commercial financial institutions but as well any FIs require regular health check up to maintain the confidence of personal sector in financial system of the nation and protect the interest of depositors, lenders, shareholders and also other stakeholders. The gravity of the importance of appear financial sector has increased immensely after the worldwide financial turmoil of the second half of the 1990s. International monetary authorities such as International Budgetary Fund and international FI like the Universe Bank have got underpinned the requirement of healthy monetary sector to build up the self-confidence of private sector in the liber41

The Log of Nepalese Business Studies

alized financial system. Consequently , they have aimed their affiliate countries to reform the financial sector and carry out the regular overall health check up of FIs through onsite and offsite supervision. International FIs like the Community Bank and Asian Development Bank (ADB) are supporting the projects work in the problematic vein of reforming process of the financial sector of different countries. For example , the World Bank is constantly providing the technical and financial support to reengineer NRB and restructure Nepal Bank Ltd. and Rastriya Banijya Bank (NRB 2005).

Health of financial sector depend upon which health of individual FIs. In addition , person FI’s overall health counts around the myriad macro and tiny

elements. Among the macro factors, personal stability and the real sector growth will be vital. The financial health of FIs can not maintain without the political stability and sustainable real sector expansion with sound health. Nevertheless , the intensity of transmittable effect of these macro variables may vary from one individual FI to another. Therefore , health of individual FI should be examined up frequently to know the intensity of such effect.

Health of your individual FI is a function of multiple factors including quality of its resources, liquidity position, capital base, management quality, market awareness and revenue. All these factors affect the different types of risk to the individual FI. Different types of risks: credit risk, interest rate risk, liquidity risk, market risk, off-balance linen risk, forex trading risk, full sovereign coin risk, technology, operational risk, insolvency risk, affect the well being of an individual FI adversely if they are not managed in sustainable way (Saunders and Cornett 2004).

A number of elements such as quality of assets, financial industry condition, forex market, formula of assets, financial overall health of it is clients, success, capital adequacy, affect the amount of these dangers. Financial overall health check-up of the individual establishment should be manufactured regularly to detect the adverse a result of these hazards on their health. Micro-prudential indicators including capital adequacy, asset top quality, management soundness, earning and profitability, fluidity, sensitivity to advertise risk, and market structured indicators just like market price of financial instruments, credit scores are used as indicators of the sound well being of an person FI (Evan and others 2000). These indications are explained at duration in the resulting section of this kind of paper.

installment payments on your Theoretical Pharmaceutical drug of CAMELS Framework

The Basle Committee on Banking Oversight of the Lender of Foreign Settlements (BIS) has suggested using capital adequacy, property quality, managing quality, profits and fluid (CAMEL) as criteria intended for assessing a FI in 1988 (ADB 2002). The 6th component, market risk (S) was included with CAMEL in 1997 (Gilbert, Meyer and Vaughan 2000). However , almost all of the developing countries are using CAMEL instead of CAMELS in the functionality evaluation in the FIs. The central banks in a few of the countries like

Nepal, Kenya use CAEL instead of CAMELS.

CAMELS platform is a common method for evaluating the soundness of FIs. This method was developed simply by regulatory specialists of the U. S banks. The Federal Reserve Bank, the Comptroller of the Foreign currency and the Government Deposit Insurance Corporation most use this system (McNally 1996). Monetary regulators in the the majority of the countries are applying this system to evaluate up the wellness of an individual FI. Additionally , International Budgetary Fund also is using the aggregated indicators of individual FIs to assess the financial system 40

Health Check up of Commercial Banking institutions

soundness of its member countries as part of its surveillance work (Hilbers, Krueger and Moretti 2000).

2 . one particular Capital Adequacy

CAMELS framework program looks at 6 major facets of an FI: capital adequacy, asset quality, management soundness, earnings, fluidity, and level of sensitivity to market risk (Hilbers, Krueger and Moretti 2000). The first component, capital adequacy ultimately establishes how very well FIs can manage with shocks to their balance sheets. Thus, this tracks capital adequacy proportions that consider the most important economic risks”foreign exchange, credit, and interest rate risks”by assigning risk weightings towards the institution’s resources. For the purpose of capital adequacy dimension, bank capital is broken into Tier I actually and Rate II. Rate I capital is principal capital and Tier 2 capital is supplementary capital.

In Nepalese context, Tier I (core/primary) capital contains paid-up capital, share superior, non-redeemable inclination share, standard reserve fund, accumulated earnings, capital redemption reserve, capital adjustment fund, and other totally free reserve. Volume of the goodwill, fictitious assets, investment in the financial instruments issued by simply an organized organization excessively to the limit specified simply by NRB, and investment in the financial tools issued by the organizations getting the own economic interest is usually deducted from your sum of all elements of the principal capital to travel to the main capital. Likewise, Tier II (supplementary) capital comprises of standard loan reduction provision, assets revaluation reserve, hybrid capital instruments

subordinated term loan, exchange equalization hold, excess financial loan loss supply, and expenditure adjustment book. Thus, the whole capital of economic banks is definitely the sum of core capital and additional capital (NRB 2005).

Leveraging ratio can be used to measure the capital adequacy of the bank. This can be a ratio of bank’s publication value of core capital to the publication value of its assets. The higher percentage shows the higher level of capital adequacy. The U. S. A. Government Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act (FDICIA) of 1991 has set the five target zones: i. 5% and over ii. 4 percent and above 3. under four percent, iv. under three or more percent, sixth is v. 2 percent and less, of leverage ratio. The power ratio falling in the initially zone implies that bank can be well made a fortune.

Similarly, the leverage slipping in the second zone demonstrates bank is usually adequately capitalized. The influence falling in the last three specific zones indicates that bank is definitely inadequately capitalized and regulators should take fast corrective actions to bring the capital to the desirable level (Saunders and Cornett 2004). The leverage proportion stated in the foregoing discussion is simple capital to assets ratio. In other words, property are not risk adjusted. The 1993 Basel Accord unplaned the capital percentage to risk adjusted resources of commercial banks. According to this accord, core capital must equal to or exceed 4 percent from the risk weighted assets of the commercial banks. Similarly, how much the extra capital probably should not exceed how much the primary capital and the total capital must similar or exceed 8 percent of risk weighted assets (Saunders and Cornett 2004).

NRB initially fixed the core capital at the level of 4. 5% of the risk weighted resources and total capital at the level of being unfaithful percent of risk weighted assets from the commercial banking companies (NRB 2058). For the existing FY2005/06, the mandatory levels of primary capital and total capital are 6 percent and 12 percent of risk weighted property of commercial banking companies. But NRB has strictly directed all commercial banking companies that the volume of the extra capital should not be in excess to the amount of the core capital (NRB 2005). 43

The Journal of Nepalese Business Studies

2 . 2 Asset Top quality

Credit rating risk is among the factors that affect the wellness of an specific FI. The extent in the credit risk depends on the top quality of possessions held simply by an individual FI. The quality of resources held by an FI depends on exposure to specific dangers, trends in non-performing financial loans, and the health insurance and profitability of bank borrowers”especially the corporate sector. We can make use of a number of measures to indicate the quality of assets placed by FIs. ADB advises these measures”loan concentration by simply industry, region, borrower and portfolio quality; related party policies and exposure about outstanding financial loan, approval means of loan, verify and stability of loans; loan loss provision percentage; portfolio in arrear; mortgage loss percentage; and reserve ratio”of checking out the quality of assets associated with an FI (ADB 2002).

NRB uses structure of resources, non-performing financial loan to total financial loan ratio, net non-performing financial loan to total mortgage ratio while the indicators of the quality of assets of commercial banks (NRB 2005. NRB has described the business banks in regards to the concentration of the loan. Virtually any licensed FI can scholarhip the fund base mortgage to a single borrower or perhaps borrowers relevant to the same business group to the 25 percent of its major capital. In the same problematic vein, it can provide the non-fund foundation loan about 50 percent of its core capital (NRB 2005). In the same way, it has aimed FIs to classify the financial loans into carrying out loan and non-performing financial loans.

The financial loans that are not credited and 3-4 months past due fall in the class of performing loans/performing possessions and others carry out in the nonperforming loans. Even more, non-performing financial loans are categorized into 3 groups: low quality, doubtful, and bad debt/ loss (for detail classification see NRB directive 2/061/62). Commercial banking institutions have to help to make 1 percent provision for move loan/performing loan, 25 percent intended for substandard bank loan, 50 percent pertaining to doubtful mortgage and completely for awful loan (NRB 2005). nonperforming assets in the total possessions of commercial banks was 22. 77 percent in the FY 2003/04. However the percentage of nonperforming property of an specific commercial lender varies from zero. 76 percent to 57. 64 in the same money year. Nevertheless the normal international standard from the percentage of non-performing resources is 5-8 percent in the total property.

2 . a few Management Top quality

Audio management is key to bank performance but is hard to measure. It

can be primarily a qualitative component applicable to individual establishments. Several symptoms, however , can easily jointly act as an sign of supervision soundness. Expenses ratio, making per worker, cost every loan, normal loan size and price per product of money given can be used like a proxy with the management quality. ADB advises cost every unit of money lent being a proxy of management quality. But this may not be used as a great indicator of management quality in Nepal. Since the info on sum of the total loan mobilized during a particular FY is usually not available in published economical statements and annual reports. As stated previously, NRB features skipped up this element of CAMELS inside the performance evaluation of commercial banking companies (see NRB 2005).

2 . 4 Generating Performance

Earning capacity or earnings keeps the sound wellness of an FI. Chronically unprofitable FI hazards insolvency similarly and on the others, unusually substantial profitability can reflect increased risk choosing of an FI. There are diverse indicators of profitability. Return on property, return in equity, interest-spread ratio, earning-spread ratio, major margin, 44

Health Check up of Commercial Financial institutions

working profit perimeter and net profit margin are commonly employed profitability indicators. NRB uses return upon total resources as an indicator of profitability of any commercial traditional bank. In addition , by using the absolute actions such as interest income, net interest profits, non-interest salary, net noninterest income, nonoperating income, net nonoperating income and net profit, to evaluate the profitability of a commercial traditional bank (NRB 2005). 2 . a few Liquidity

Fluid risk threats the solvency of FIs. In the case of industrial banks, initial type of fluid risk comes up when depositors of commercial banks seek to withdraw their money as well as the second type does once commitment cases want to exercise the commitments registered off the balance sheet. Commercial banks have to acquire the additional money or sell off the resources at open fire sale value to pay off the deposit financial obligations. They become insolvent if sale price of the assets are not enough to satisfy the liability withdrawals.

The second form of liquidity risk arises once demand for unforeseen loans cannot be met as a result of lack of the funds. Commercial banks can easily raise thefunds by running straight down their cash assets, asking for additional funds in the cash markets and selling off other property at fixer-upper price. The two liability area liquidity risk (first type risk) and asset aspect liquidity risk (second type risk) impact the health of commercial banks negatively. But preserving the high liquidity position to minimize these kinds of risks also adversely impacts the profitability of FIs.

Come back on very liquid assets is practically zero. Consequently , FIs ought to strike the tradeoff among liquidity placement and earnings so that they could maintain their particular health sound. Commercial bank’s liquidity publicity can be tested by inspecting the sources and uses of liquidity. In this way, total net liquidity can be worked out by deducting the total of uses of liquidity from the total of causes of liquidity. Likewise, BIS maturity laddering model can be used to gauge the liquidity of the commercial banking institutions. In addition , different liquidity publicity ratios such as borrowed funds to total possessions, core first deposit to total resources, loans to deposits, and commitments to lend to total assets are accustomed to measure the fluidity position of a commercial financial institution (Saunders and Cornett 2004). NRB uses total financial loan to total pay in ratio, funds and equivalents to total resources ratio, cash and variation to total deposit ratio, NRB balance to perform deposit rate to measure the liquidity location of commercial financial institutions in the course of the performance analysis of commercial banking institutions (NRB 2005). 2 . 6 Sensitivity to advertise Risk

Industrial banks are increasingly linked to diversified functions such as lending and funding, transaction in foreign exchange, advertising off assets pledged to get securities etc. All these will be subject to industry risk just like interest rate risk, foreign exchange rate risk, and financial advantage and asset price risk. The health of a great FI more sensitive to sell risk is more hazardous than that of less sensitive. Forex risk, interest risk, fairness price risk, and product price risk are the indicators of tenderness to market risk.

3. Method

Presently, all together seventeen commercial banking companies are functioning. Out with this, Rastriya Banijya Bank is fully owned by HMG/Nepal while in the case of Nepal Bank Ltd, HMG/Nepal is the main shareholder. There are six partnership

banking companies in collaboration with the overseas investment companions and remaining are totally owned by Nepalese buyers. For the purpose forty five

The Log of Nepalese Business Studies

on this study, the people has been defined in term of joint venture commercial banking companies. So the inhabitants of this examine is six. For the purpose of this kind of study, a few banks”Nabil Lender Limited (Nabil), Nepal SBI Bank Ltd. (NSBI) and Standard Chartered Bank Nepal Limited (SCBN), were selected randomly (for sampling shape and test refer to Appendix 1).

This study will be based upon the famous data unveiled by twelve-monthly reports of commercial banks. NRB has dictated the industrial banks to disclose the monetary information inside the prescribed format since the FY 2001/02. Therefore , the comparison of financial overall performance of commercial banking companies each other is merely possible the particular FY 2000/01 onward. one particular Most of the commercial banks have got yet to keep the annual general conference and distribute their twelve-monthly report to get the FY 2004/05. So , it is not likely to include this FY in the study. Consequently , this study covers the past four progressive, gradual fiscal years”from the FY 2000/01 through FY 2003/04.

The analysis of this examine is completely based on the CAMELS construction. As stated in theoretical pharmaceutical drug, health check-up of any FIs in this framework is concentrated in the 6 components: capital adequacy, property quality, supervision quality, generating, liquidity and sensitivity to promote. But in this kind of study, the last component have been dropped due to the presence a vast amount of more complications.

So , research of financial well being of joint venture banks can be carried out in the framework of CAMEL. Symptoms of each part also have recently been used according to the financial data disclosed in annual information of sampled joint venture banking companies. So , complicated indicators of each component of CAMEL framework of checking the health from the banks have been skipped up in this study (for the indications of each part refer to Appendix 2).

four. Analysis of Financial Health of economic Banks

This section of this paper analyses the indicators of the financial wellness of experienced joint venture banking institutions in the CAMEL framework. As stated in

methodology, all indicators in the financial health of FIs have not always be worked out and analyzed, only the indicators authorized by the openly available equivalent financial data have been accustomed to analyze the financial health of the experienced banks. The following section presents the examination of different symptoms of audio health of your FI inside the context of joint venture banking institutions in Nepal. 4. you Capital Adequacy

As stated earlier, leverage ratio, core capital ratio, total capital ratio and additional capital rate are used as the indicators of capital adequacy of an FI. Leverage percentages of sampled banks, in general, show that joint venture banking companies are well capitalized and they are strong enough to mange the shock to “balance sheet”. Since the leverage ratios of sampled banking institutions during the study periods happen to be greater than 5%.

Conventionally, influence ratio of 5 percent or greater than 5% indicates that commercial banks are well made a fortune. The indicators: TCR, CCR and SCR, of capital adequacy of partnership banks also corroborate together with the implication of leverage rate. In general, most banks under study have met the administrative centre adequacy ratio as directed by NRB. Only NSBI has not fulfilled the bare minimum capital requirement as described by NRB in the FY 2000/01 and FY 2003/04. In these fiscal years, its TCR and CCR happen to be lower than those of minimum proportion specified by simply NRB. Likewise, in the Financial information for the FY2000/01 were taken out from the annual reports from the sample financial institutions. But this was not possible in Nabil Bank Ltd.

Capital of commercial banking institutions in Nepal is adverse due to the heavy amount of negative capital of two public sector banks: Nepal Bank Limited. and Rastriya Banijya Bank. Capital of those two banks is bad due to the large accumulated failures.

Thus, the population sector banking institutions have yet to meet the main city adequacy requirements as needed by NRB. But exclusive sector financial institutions have, on the whole, met the main city adequacy need. The comparison between the capital fund to risk measured assets ratio of each person joint venture bank with the get worse capital finance ratio of private sector industrial banks (IAR) implies that joint venture banks have stronger capital base than that of additional private sector banks in general. In addition , average capital account ratio of joint venture financial institutions during the examine period hovers around 16 percent. This is certainly higher than the minimum ratio specified simply by NRB. This clearly means that joint venture banking institutions are complying with the enquête of NRB on the requirement of the capital basic of commercial banks.

As stated inside the foregoing analysis, banks beneath study are well capitalized and they are generally complying together with the directive of NRB in capital adequacy ratio. However capital basic relative to the chance weighted property is not too strong. According to the international score convention, total capital

should be greater than 19. 5% of the total risk weighted assets of economic banks to be a strong capital base. Yet non-e from the banks below study gets the capital finance greater than 19. 5 percent of the total risk weighted capital. As mentioned by TCR, on the normal, capital adequacy of partnership banks is definitely fair through the study period. Total capital adequacy rate less than 12-15 and comparable to 12 indicates that capital adequacy is definitely fair and the average this kind of ratio comes within this selection. 47

The Journal of Nepalese Business Studies

4. a couple of Asset Quality

It is obvious through the theoretical pharmaceutical that the overall health of commercial financial institutions largely depends upon what quality of assets placed by them, and top quality of the assets relies on the financial well being of their credit seekers. As stated before, many symptoms can be used to measure the quality of assets kept by business banks. But , here, simply two straightforward indicators” nonperforming asset percentage and mortgage loss arrange ratio”are accustomed to measure the quality of assets being placed by banks. The elevating trend of such ratios shows the showing signs of damage quality of economic bank possessions. In general, 5 percent to 10 percent of non-performing assets is considered as satisfactory level of quality of bank possessions, Table 2: Indicators of Asset Quality of Sampled Banks

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