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Rice And Genetic Engineering Essay

Rice is the main meals for about one-third to one-half of the worlds population.

A mature rice flower is usually two to six feet taller. In the beginning, a single shoot

shows up. It is followed by one, two, or more offshoots developing. You will discover at

least five or six empty joints for each and every stalk, and a leaf for each joint.

The

leaf from the rice grow is very long, pointed, level, and stiff. The highest become a member of of

the rice flower is called the panicle. The rice grain develop from the panicles.

(Jodon, 300) Rice is categorized in the lawn family Gramineae. Its genus is

Oryza and types O. sativa.

It really is commonly cultivated for foodstuff in Asia. Some

types of rice consist of red rice, glutinous rice, and wild rice. (Jodon, 303)

The kernel inside the grain includes most of the nutritional supplements (298).

The kernel includes thiamine, niacin, and riboflavin (299). Grain has many

adversaries that eliminate a majority of the rice seeds. The larvae of moth, stem

borers, live in the stems from the rice plants.

Several insects pull the plant fruit drinks

or gnaw the leaves. Birds, just like bobolink, Java sparrow, or paddybird, might

eat the seeds or perhaps grains. Disease causing factors such as fungi, roundworms

malware, and bacterias also damage the rice plants. Great time disease can be caused by

fungus which causes the panicles made up of the cause to break. (Jodon, 300)

There are various types of rice grown all over the world. A majority of rice

grown is cultivated rice.

When rice is produced with water standing on the fields

it is called lowland, wet, or perhaps irrigated grain. Rice plant life grown in most parts

of Asia, South America, and Africa are called upland, hill, or perhaps dry rice because

they can be raised upon elevated gets that can not be flooded, good results . plentiful

rainfall. Wild grain is grown along pond shores of Canada plus the Great Wetlands. It

is often eaten simply by people in India. Perfumed rice is among the most expensive since

is has long grain and likes like fat free popcorn when prepared. Glutinous grain is waxy

rice consumed by Asians.

It really is cooked to a sticky substance and is utilized for cakes

and confections. (Jodon, 299) Rice was considered to have originated from southeast

Asia when Alexander the Great invaded India in 326 W. C(Jodon, 303). Further

study revealed that rice was grown around or perhaps at the Yangtze River in

China, around 4000 to 11, five-hundred years ago. 1 archaeologist, Toyama, surveyed data

on 125 samples of grain grains, plant remains, husks, and other elements from

numerous sites along the length of the Yangtze River., This individual reported which the

oldest examples.

.. will be clustered over the middle Yangtze in Hubei and Hunan

provinces. Examples from the upper and lower portions in the Yangtze Water were

discovered to be youthful, around 5, 000 to 10, 1000 years old., This kind of pattern..

. shows that rice fostering originated in the middle Yangtze and spread coming from

there,. Archaeologists see more than a decade of excavation of the Yangtze

River and nearby sites to confirm the Yangtze River is where rice was initially

cultivated. (Normille, 309) The Greeks learned of rice when Alexander the Great

invaded India around 326 W. C. The country of spain was brought to rice mainly because it was

conquered by the Moors during the 700s A.

D. Spain in that case introduced rice to

Italia, around the 1400s. The Spanish also presented rice for the West Indies

and South usa, around the 1600s. Rice was introduced to the usa

when a Madagascar ship docked in the Charleston, South Carolina possess. The deliver

captain shown the texas chief with a sack of seed rice. It was then cultivated in

declares south from the Ohio Lake and east of Mississippi.

(Jodon, 303) Rice is

usually grown in lowland areas divided simply by dirt wall space (Jodon, 300) A majority of

the rice seeds are produced with normal water standing on the fields (Jodon, 299). Upon

level area, these paddies and dirt walls are built in wavy or right lines. On

hill-like land, they stick to the slopes and form paddies that surge like actions.

The dirt and grime walls are more comfortable with hold in water intended for the fields. (300) Cultivation of

the rice herb requires controlling the water supply and weeding the rice

fields. Water has to be two to six inches deep to get the seed to germinate

properly.

After the cause germinate, water is drained. The rice plant is

then developed by hand. (Jodon, 301) Besides steaming the rice pertaining to consumption

also, it is used for additional products. Rampacked.

Rice is the main meals for about a third to one-half of the sides population.

A mature rice herb is usually two to half a dozen feet tall. In the beginning, one particular shoot

shows up. It is followed by one, two, or more offshoots developing. There are at

least five or six hollowed out joints for each stalk, and a leaf for each joint.

The

leaf of the rice herb is lengthy, pointed, flat, and firm. The highest become a member of of

the rice grow is called the panicle. The rice grains develop from the panicles.

(Jodon, 300) Grain is grouped in the turf family Gramineae. Its genus is

Oryza and varieties O. sativa.

It truly is commonly developed for foodstuff in Asia. Some

varieties of rice incorporate red grain, glutinous grain, and crazy rice. (Jodon, 303)

The kernel within the grain includes most of the minerals and vitamins (298).

The kernel is made up of thiamine, niacin, and riboflavin (299). Grain has many

adversaries that damage a majority of the rice vegetation. The larvae of moth, stem

borers, live in the stems in the rice plant life.

A lot of insects pull the plant fruit drinks

or chew up the leaves. Birds, including bobolink, Java sparrow, or perhaps paddybird, will

eat the seeds or grains. Disease causing factors such as disease, roundworms

viruses, and bacteria also damage the rice plants. Fun time disease can be caused by

disease which causes the panicles made up of the embryon to break. (Jodon, 300)

There are numerous types of rice produced all over the world. Most of rice

expanded is developed rice.

When grain is cultivated with normal water standing on the fields

it is called lowland, wet, or perhaps irrigated rice. Rice plant life grown in some parts

of Asia, South America, and Africa are called upland, hill, or perhaps dry grain because

they may be raised on elevated countries that can not be flooded, good results . plentiful

rainfall. Wild rice is grown along pond shores of Canada plus the Great Wetlands. It

is often eaten simply by people in India. Fragrant rice is the most expensive because

is features long cause and preferences like popcorn when grilled. Glutinous grain is waxy

rice consumed by Asians.

It truly is cooked into a sticky insert and is used for cakes

and confections. (Jodon, 299) Grain was considered to have originated in southeast

Asia when Alexander the Great occupied India in 326 B. C(Jodon, 303). Further

analysis revealed that rice was cultivated around or perhaps at the Yangtze River in

China, about 4000 to 11, 500 years ago. One archaeologist, Toyama, surveyed info

on a hundred and twenty-five samples of grain grains, flower remains, husks, and other elements from

several sites over the length of the Yangtze River. He reported that the

oldest examples.

.. will be clustered along the middle Yangtze in Hubei and Hunan

provinces. Selections from the upper and lower portions in the Yangtze River were

found to be young, around 5, 000 to 10, 000 years old. This pattern..

. suggests that rice cultivation originated in the center Yangtze and spread by

there. Archaeologists see several years of excavation of the Yangtze

River and nearby sites to confirm which the Yangtze River is in which rice was initially

cultivated. (Normille, 309) The Greeks learned of rice when Alexander the Great

invaded India about 326 W. C. Italy was introduced to rice mainly because it was

overcome by the Moors during the 700s A.

D. Spain then introduced rice to

Italia, around the 1400s. The The spanish language also presented rice for the West Indies

and South America, around the 1600s. Rice was introduced to the usa

when a Madagascar ship docked in the Charleston, South Carolina possess. The dispatch

captain shown the chief of the servants with a bag of seeds rice. It was then grown in

claims south of the Ohio Water and east of Mississippi.

(Jodon, 303) Grain is

generally grown in lowland areas divided simply by dirt surfaces (Jodon, 300) A majority of

the rice seeds are produced with water standing on the fields (Jodon, 299). On

level property, these paddies and dirt walls are made in wavy or straight lines. About

hill-like property, they follow the slopes and form paddies that surge like measures.

The dirt walls prefer hold in water to get the fields. (300) Cultivation of

the rice herb requires manipulating the water supply and weeding the rice

fields. Water must be two to six ins deep for the seed to germinate

properly.

After the cause germinate, this particular is used up. The rice plant is

then grown by hand. (Jodon, 301) Besides steaming the rice to get consumption

it is additionally used for other products. Rampacked rice.

Grain And Innate Engineering Composition

Rice is an essential food for about one-third to one-half of the worlds populace. A mature grain plant is normally two to six toes tall. At the start, one shoot appears. It really is followed by 1, two, or even more offshoots growing. There are in least 5 or 6 hollow joints for each stalk, and a leaf for each and every joint.

The tea leaf of the grain plant is long, aimed, flat, and stiff. The best join with the rice grow is called the panicle. The rice grains develop in the panicles. (Jodon, 300)

Rice is labeled in the lawn family Gramineae. Its genus is Oryza and species O. sativa.

It truly is commonly cultivated for foodstuff in Asia. Some kinds of rice incorporate red grain, glutinous grain, and untamed rice. (Jodon, 303) The kernel in the grain includes most of the nutritional supplements (298). The kernel contains thiamine, niacin, and riboflavin (299).

Grain has many adversaries that ruin a majority of the rice seeds. The larvae of moth, stem borers, live in the stems of the rice plant life.

Several insects pull the plant state of mind or gnaw the leaves. Birds, just like bobolink, Java sparrow, or paddybird, will eat the seeds or grains. Disease causing elements such as fungi, roundworms, viruses, and bacteria also damage the rice plants. Fun time disease is usually caused by disease which causes the panicles that contain the grains to break. (Jodon, 300)

There are several types of rice grown all over the world. Most of rice cultivated is cultivated rice.

When grain is produced with normal water standing on the fields, it is called lowland, wet, or irrigated grain. Rice crops grown in most parts of Asia, South America, and Africa are called upland, mountain, or dried rice because they are raised in elevated royaume that cannot be flooded, good results . plentiful rain fall. Wild grain is cultivated along lake shores of Canada and the Great Ponds. It is usually ingested by people in India. Scented rice is the most pricey because is usually has very long grains and tastes like popcorn when cooked. Glutinous rice is waxy rice consumed by simply Asians.

It is cooked to a sticky paste and is used for cakes and agencement. (Jodon, 299)

Rice was thought to possess originated in southeast Asia when Alexander the fantastic invaded India in 326 B. C(Jodon, 303). Further research revealed that rice was cultivated about or at the Yangtze Riv in China, around four thousand to eleven, 500 in years past. One archaeologist, Toyama, selected data about 125 types of rice embryon, plant continues to be, husks, and also other factors via numerous sites along the entire Yangtze Water. He reported that the most ancient samples.

.. are clustered along the central Yangtze in Hubei and Hunan provinces. Samples through the upper and lower helpings of the Yangtze River were found to be younger, about 4, 1000 to 15, 000 years of age. This design..

. shows that rice farming originated in the middle Yangtze and spread following that. Archaeologists see more than a decade of excavation in the Yangtze Water and close by sites to confirm that the Yangtze River is where rice was first developed. (Normille, 309)

The Greeks learned of rice when Alexander the truly great invaded India around 326 B. C. Spain was introduced to grain when it was conquered by Moors through the 700s A.

D. The country of spain then released rice to Italy, around the 1400s. The Spanish likewise introduced rice to the West Indies and South America, around the 1600s. Grain was brought to the United States when a Madagascar ship docked inside the Charleston, Sc harbor. The ship chief presented the governor using a sack of seed grain. It was after that grown in states to the south of the Ohio River and east of Mississippi.

(Jodon, 303)

Rice is usually grown in lowland fields divided by simply dirt surfaces (Jodon, 300) A majority of the rice vegetation are cultivated with drinking water standing on the fields (Jodon, 299). On level land, these paddies and dirt and grime walls are built in wavy or directly lines. On hill-like terrain, they follow the slopes and form paddies that rise like steps. The dirt and grime walls are accustomed to hold in water pertaining to the domains. (300)

Cultivation of the grain plant needs controlling the water supply.

Rice and Genetic Anatomist Essay

Grain is the main foodstuff for about one-third to one-half of the worlds population. A mature rice grow is usually two to 6 feet high. In the beginning, one shoot shows up. It is and then one, two, or more offshoots developing. You will find at least five or six empty joints for each and every stalk, and a leaf for each joint.

The leaf with the rice plant is very long, pointed, level, and stiff. The highest become a member of of the grain plant is known as the panicle. The grain grains develop from the panicles. (Jodon, 300)

Rice is usually classified inside the grass friends and family Gramineae. Their genus is usually Oryza and species Um. sativa.

It is generally cultivated for food in Asia. Several varieties of grain include crimson rice, glutinous rice, and wild rice. (Jodon, 303) The kernel within the feed contains most of the vitamins and minerals (298). The kernel contains thiamine, niacin, and riboflavin (299).

Rice has its own enemies that destroy a majority of the grain crops. The larvae of moth, control borers, stay in the arises of the rice plants.

Some pesky insects suck the rose juices or perhaps chew the leaves. Wild birds, such as bobolink, Java sparrow, or paddybird, would eat the seeds or cause. Disease causing factors just like fungi, roundworms, viruses, and bacteria also destroy the rice plants. Blast disease is caused by fungi which in turn causes the panicles containing the grains in order to. (Jodon, 300)

There are various types of grain grown worldwide. A majority of rice grown is definitely cultivated rice.

Once rice can be grown with water located on the domains, it is known as lowland, damp, or irrigated rice. Grain plants grown in certain elements of Asia, South America, and Africa are called upland, hill, or dry grain because they are brought up on elevated lands that cannot be overloaded, but with abundant rainfall. Crazy rice is usually grown along lake shores of Canada and the Superb Lakes. It will always be eaten by people in India. Perfumed rice is among the most expensive since is has long grain and preferences like popcorn when grilled. Glutinous rice is waxy rice used by Asians.

It is cooked to a sticky insert and is utilized for cakes and confections. (Jodon, 299)

Grain was thought to have originated from southeast Asia when Alexander the Great penetrated India in 326 N. C(Jodon, 303). Further analysis revealed that rice was developed around or at the Yangtze River in China, about 4000 to 11, five-hundred years ago. 1 archaeologist, Toyama, surveyed data on 125 samples of grain grains, plant remains, husks, and other factors from many sites along the length of the Yangtze River. He reported which the oldest selections.

.. are clustered along the middle Yangtze in Hubei and Hunan provinces. Samples from the lower and upper portions from the Yangtze Water were found to be more youthful, around some, 000 to 10, 500 years old. This pattern..

. suggests that grain cultivation originated from the middle Yangtze and distributed from there. Archaeologists see more than a decade of excavation of the Yangtze River and nearby sites to confirm the Yangtze River is where rice was first cultivated. (Normille, 309)

The Greeks learned of grain when Alexander the Great occupied India around 326 M. C. Spain was brought to rice mainly because it was overcome by the Moors during the 700s A.

G. Spain then introduced rice to Italy, around the 1400s. The Spanish also released rice towards the West Indies and South usa, around the 1600s. Rice was introduced to america when a Madagascar ship docked in the Charleston, South Carolina possess. The send captain offered the texas chief with a sack of seeds rice. It had been then produced in claims south with the Ohio Water and east of Mississippi.

(Jodon, 303)

Rice is usually cultivated in lowland fields divided by dirt walls (Jodon, 300) Most of the grain crops will be grown with water located on the fields (Jodon, 299). On level land, these kinds of paddies and dirt surfaces are built in wavy or perhaps straight lines. On hill-like land, that they follow the slopes and kind paddies that rise like steps. The dirt wall space are used to maintain in water for the fields. (300)

Cultivation of the rice plant requires controlling the water supply.

Grain And Genetic Engineering Article

Rice is the main food for approximately one-third to one-half with the worlds population. A mature grain plant is generally two to six foot tall. Initially, one take appears. It can be followed by one, two, or even more offshoots producing. There are for least 5 to 6 hollow bones for each track, and a leaf for each joint. The leaf with the rice grow is lengthy, pointed, smooth, and hard. The highest join of the grain plant is named the panicle. The rice grains develop from the panicles. (Jodon, 300)

Rice is usually classified in the grass family Gramineae. It is genus is usually Oryza and species O. sativa. It really is commonly cultivated for meals in Asia. Some different types of rice include red grain, glutinous grain, and outrageous rice. (Jodon, 303) The kernel in the grain is made up of most of the minerals and vitamins (298). The kernel contains thiamine, niacin, and riboflavin (299).

Grain has many foes that damage a majority of the rice crops. The larvae of moth, stem borers, live in the stems in the rice plants. Some pests suck the rose juices or perhaps chew the leaves. Wild birds, such as bobolink, Java sparrow, or paddybird, would eat the seed or embryon. Disease causing factors just like fungi, roundworms, viruses, and bacteria also destroy the rice plant life. Blast disease is caused by fungi which in turn causes the panicles containing the grains to break. (Jodon, 300)

There are various types of rice grown all over the world. Most of rice cultivated is grown rice. When rice is definitely grown with water standing on the fields, it is called lowland, damp, or irrigated rice. Grain plants grown in certain regions of Asia, South America, and The african continent are called upland, hill, or perhaps dry grain because they are raised on enhanced lands that cannot be inundated, but with ample rainfall. Wild rice is definitely grown along lake shores of Canada and the Wonderful Lakes. Most commonly it is eaten by people in India. Fragrant rice is considered the most expensive because is provides long grains and tastes like fat free popcorn when cooked. Glutinous grain is waxy rice used by Asians. It is cooked to a gross paste and it is used for bread and confections. (Jodon, 299)

Grain was considered to have originated from southeast Asia when Alexander the Great invaded India in 326 M. C(Jodon, 303). Further research revealed that rice was cultivated around or perhaps at the Yangtze River in China, about 4000 to 11, five-hundred years ago. 1 archaeologist, Toyama, surveyed data on a hundred and twenty-five samples of grain grains, herb remains, husks, and other factors from numerous sites along the length of the Yangtze River. He reported the oldest selections… are clustered along the midsection Yangtze in Hubei and Hunan pays. Samples through the upper and lower helpings of the Yangtze River were found being younger, about 4, 000 to twelve, 000 years old. This style… suggests that rice cultivation originated in the middle Yangtze and spread from there. Archaeologists see many years of excavation of the Yangtze River and nearby sites to confirm that the Yangtze Riv is in which rice was first cultivated. (Normille, 309)

The Greeks learned of rice the moment Alexander the fantastic invaded India around 326 B. C. Spain was introduced to rice when it was conquered by the Moors through the 700s A. D. Italy then released rice to Italy, about the 1400s. The Spanish likewise introduced rice to the Western Indies and South America, throughout the 1600s. Rice was brought to the United States every time a Madagascar send docked in the Charleston, South Carolina harbor. The ship chief presented the governor having a sack of seed rice. It was after that grown in states south of the Kansas River and east of Mississippi. (Jodon, 303)

Grain is usually expanded in lowland fields divided by dirt walls (Jodon, 300) Most of the grain crops are grown with water sitting on the domains (Jodon, 299). On level land, these types of paddies and dirt wall surfaces are built in wavy or straight lines. On hill-like land, that they follow the mountains and kind paddies that rise just like steps. The dirt wall space are used to hold in normal water for the fields. (300)

Cultivation in the rice flower requires manipulating the water supply and weeding the rice areas. Water must be two to six in . deep pertaining to the seed to germinate properly. Following the grains germinate, the water is drained. The rice grow is then grown by hand. (Jodon, 301)

Besides steaming the rice intended for consumption, it is also used for different products. Enriched rice is definitely regular kernels and vitamin and nutrient coated kernels mixed collectively. The Japanese make use of the fermented grain kernels to create sake, rice wine. Rice is sometimes used in making beer in the United States and Europe. Powder-like by-products, grain and polish, are used to give food to livestock. Starch from the rice plant is utilized in laundry starch. Japan usually use the rice hulls to prevent damage of fragile objects during shipping. Rice hulls as well serve as fuel for vapor engines. The dried sections of grain are used to produce sandals, hats, raincoats, and thatching roofing. In the Philippines, farmers develop mushrooms in beds of rice straw. (Jodon, 298-99)

The goal of the Super Rice concern is to make rice plant life that are disease resistant, insect resistant, and produces twenty-five percent even more food every acre. The International Grain Research Company has been working with this challenge. It can be competing with many various elements that are driving the Worldwide Rice Exploration Institute in an attempt to complete the process as soon as possible. Factors such as developing population, limited areas intended for growing rice, and the common farmers beliefs of receive anything to expand are pressing researchers to complete the project as quickly as possible. Also, the brand new varieties of rice has increased a question with the farmers wellness because of the uses and associated with agricultural chemicals. Since regular rice cultivated in paddies produces excessive amounts of methane, the Intercontinental Rice Research Institute must also find a way to produce rice plants with a low methane production. Gurdev Khush believes the super grain will be ready for farmers to plant them around the end of the century. (Bioscience, 239)

Researchers could actually develop a sort of rice through the 1960s. This type of rice, called miracle grain, because of its high yields. Research workers were able to develop it by combining a brief variety of grain with a taller variety. This crossbreeding making rice herb that can withstand wind and rain and possess a high development yield. This new breed was thought to have already been to reduce the food shortages that depend on rice as a staple food, nevertheless because of different conditions in other countries, this rice plant has not been very successful. (Jodon, 299)

Blight, caused by bacterias, spreads swiftly through grain fields in water droplets. The rice plant will develop lesions and die in a matter of times. This disease could eliminate about half of any rice crop. Through innate engineering, mcdougal and her colleagues have been completely able to bring in isolated disease-resistant genes into the rice plants. (Ronald, 100) The gene, called Xa21, was discovered by the Foreign Rice Study Institute, and Ronald attempted to clone Xa21 from the International Rice Research Institute variety. (101)

The Cornell group created a hereditary map which in turn showed the location of numerous markers around the twelve rice chromosomes. Ronald and her colleagues utilized this innate map to get gene Xa21 by examining over one thousand rice plants to see when known GENETICS markers came along in conjunction with resistance from blight. That they used chromosomal swapping and rearranging that goes on during sexual duplication. The more often they found resistance within the next generation of rice plant life, the deeper they were to locating the gene. (102)

Since rice crops are defiant in receiving outside DNA, they applied a gun that shoots tiny particles into intact cells, which was manufactured by John Sanford of Cornell. After making use of this procedure to introduce Xa21 into a classic, but vulnerable, rice grow they uncovered the plant life to blight. They found that the vegetation were resistant to the blight. Ronald and her colleagues current aim is to introduce Xa21 into rice kinds that are agriculturally important. (102-03)

Current studies confirmed that grain plants introduced to the cloned Xa21 gene have become blight resistant. Seeing that farmers prefer to grow plants that have tailored to the several climates and conditions, Ronald stated that the genetically engineered versions will probably be identical for the original vegetation except for digging in the single cloned gene. Ronald and her colleagues still have to field-test the new types for produce, taste, and hardiness to verify that the initial adaptations have remain unrevised. (104)

The success of this project features reached in to testing the task and the gene on various other plants. Experts hope that Ronalds procedure for making the rice plant blight tolerant will work about other plant life. They hope that this method will be successful on important crops, including citrus seeds. They plan to combine the gene Xa21 and other disease resistance family genes to enhance the plants capacity disease. The condition with cloning the Xa21 gene is the fact it is still vulnerable to different diseases including grassy-stunt and ragged-stunt malware. (Ronald, 104)

The purpose of Japans rice genome project should be to fully map the 14 chromosomes from the rice flower. Low funding of this task has hindered the progress of this project. Since Japan has increased it is funding to its genome project, the rice genome division can now complete umschlüsselung the 12 chromosomes in the rice grow. (Normille, 1702)

Rice is among the worlds most significant crops because a majority of the world depends on this kind of as a staple food. The number of rice plants planted, yet , are greater than the number of grain consumed. The reason is , of various elements that ruin the grain plants before they can be farmed for commercial use. Various factors, such as insects, birds, and disease, eliminate the rice crops. Tasks are staying conducted to enhance the rice plant, yet researchers encounter various road blocks. Making the rice grow disease-resistant to blight may be useful and valuable, however they must also discover a way to make the grain plant resists other conditions and viruses such as ragged- stunt. As Japan has grown its funds to its genome projects, they have been able to increase the work with mapping the twelve rice chromosomes. Experts hope the particular projects will probably be finished, and that farmers will probably be using the increased genes prove rice plants by the start of the next 100 years.

Bibliography

Works Mentioned

The Very Rice Problem. Bioscience.

Apr. 95 v. 45. pp. 239

Jodon, Nelson. Rice. Encyclopedia.

1976, Chicago. Field Enterprises Educational Corporation. sixth is v. 16. pp. 298-303

Normille, Dennis. Rice Genome Events Ahead. Technology.

5 Dec. 1997. v. 278. pp. 1702

Normille, Dennis. Yangtze Seen as Earliest Rice Site. Science.

seventeen Jan. 1997. V. 275. pp. 309

Ronald, Pamela. Making Grain Disease-Resistant. Clinical American.

Nov. 1997. pp. 100-105.

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