Seoul is definitely the capital of South Korea with a inhabitants of 15, 297, 004 (one last of the total national population) as of the conclusion of 2006. The total area of Seoul is usually 605. 52 square miles, which is simply 0. 6% of the country’s total location.. The Hangang River divides the city in to two parts: the north part (called Gangbuk) as well as the southern part (Gangnam). The Gangbuk place totals 297. 97 sq . kilometers while Gangnam is definitely 307. 55 square miles. Seoul is usually divided into makes autonomous management units known as ‘gu’. In 1394, Seoul had become the capital of Southern Korea and since then the inhabitants of Seoul has grown one hundred ten times.
Due to speedy migration from rural to urban areas, the city has grown considering that the administrative reorganization in 1973. A rapid regarding cities about the capital came about after 1970 (Seoul Metropolitan Government). Speedy economic advancement took place in Korea during the 1960s and 1970s, and a large number of persons migrated from your rural areas to Seoul. In the beginning, the migrants constructed their own properties without the permission of the city government, with low quality enclosure materials, and an unexpected way (Ha- b).
The first unexpected (unlicensed) occupation in Korea occurred during Japanese profession in the form of “mud hut villages. These were an accumulation of houses with straw matting roofs and were seen in the steep mountain inclines and at the bank of little streams; the mud hut dwellers had been very poor. After their self-reliance in 1945 and the Korean War in 1953, a huge number of folks migrated and formed ‘shanty towns’ in the outskirts of the city (Ha, Shin and Seong). Casing was a significant problem faced by most of these towns in growing countries plus the same pertains to Seoul. This paper will examine the Page two
current real estate situation in Seoul, the government’s initiatives and guidelines to improve it, and will provide a few suggestions in the conclusion to overcome these kinds of problems. installment payments on your Economic development vs . Real estate growth in Korea: The regular economic progress rate in South Korea was 17% during 1994-1997, but as a result of Asian financial disaster in 1997 it dropped to -8. 7% and to -38. 8% in 1999. Nevertheless , the average progress rate started to be positive again in 1999 by 36. 3%, until negotiating in the year 2003 at -1. 4% (Pyo 1-2). The annual every capita GNP (Gross Countrywide Product) of South Korea increased from US$ 69 to US$ 10, 079 from 1960 to 1995.
Houses improved annually simply by more than 5% in the 1960s and 1970s, but this was inadequate to meet the demand of the growing population (Ha 2004a). several. Housing circumstance in Seoul: In 2150, nearly a single quarter (23. 1%) of most households in Seoul lived in accommodations that did not meet up with minimum standards (such because floor space and basic facilities) set by government. Various families occupied single illegitimate or sub-standard rooms, or in residences built of vinyl and thin solid wood boards, almost all of which was missing even basic facilities. The minimum standard for enclosure set by the Korean government was based on the following elements (Ha 2004a):
1 . Lowest floor space (adequate space and privacy): the dwelling space on the floor area for a household of four persons should be more than thirty seven square metres. 2 . Establishments (provision of basic services): any housing lacking simple services and facilities, including running water, electrical power or a sewer system is judged to be beneath standard; and 3. Framework and environment: housing with poorly developed structures just like tents, communal huts and barracks using inferior building materials can also be judged to be below standard. (Table 1 in Annexure A (page 11) reveals the housing situation in Korea from 1980 to 2000). Web page 3
The price of houses and rent continued to increase because of economic progress and deficit of houses. In Seoul City area, real estate price to income rate (PIR) was 6. 3 in 1997, higher than a global average a few. 2 . Similarly, rent to income proportion (RIR) was 27% when compared with global normal 18% (Ha 2004a). Relating to info of the Economic Supervisory Services (FSS) since September 06\, the average residence price to income ratio (PIR) among wage-earning households nationwide stood at some. 9, close to the 3-5 optimum level. Yet , the PIR was 15. 1 for apartments in Seoul and 12. 9 for apartments in Seoul’s Gangnam region!
The PIR in Seoul was higher than admitted cities, including New York at 7. 9, London in 6. 9 (“Research Physique; Ministry disagrees over Korea’s housing bubble). In recent years the housing sector investment made up 4. five per cent of GDP in Southern Korea (Lee and Ahn). Apartment development in Korea began inside the early 1971s, and became the dominant enclosure development style in the country. Apartments rentals accounted for 81 percent of most new dwellings constructed in Korea between 1995 and 2000. Via 1990 to 2002, an overall total of doze, 521 apartment buildings with 2, 205, 116 apartments of different size had been built in Seoul (Hwang and John).
Flat business quicker in 1999 as a result of high demand and scarcity of land. Practically 60% of Seoul citizens don’t have your own houses, yet live in local rental houses. The particular owner occupancy inside the Korea has declined via 79% to 54. 2% from 1960- 2000. This kind of decline was mainly limited to urban areas where it dropped from 62% to 46. 4% by 1960 to 2000. ‘Chonse’ is a local rental system when the tenant compensates a lump sum to the landlord and gets the money back when he/she leaves. The gained interest within the Chonse is the rent purchased, and the Chonse contract is definitely legally arranged for two years (Ha 2004b).
Page some People are forced to live in “mud hut villages or in ‘shanty towns’ due to extreme poverty and very low living cost. Furthermore, most of these types of settlements grew near industrial areas, because of the job opportunities in the industrial sectors. After 70, typical residential cities intended for poor people became known as the “moon or “hill neighborhoods. In the 1980’s, “moon neighborhoods came into existence the prime goal of redevelopment and the citizens had to move further outwards of the city and kind new types of squatter neighborhoods.
Vinyl house neighborhoods are the type of developments that can be seen in Figures 1 and 2 in Annexure N (Ha, Shin and Seong). As mentioned by Ha (2004) in the 1950’s and the 1970’s, about 20-30% of people in Korea lived in the ‘slum’. He provides classified slum as: Binilhaus, Beoljip and Jjogbang. several. 1 Binilhaus (vinyl house): These houses are constructed with thin wood table layers and vinyl protecting on the outside. Many Binilhaus passengers are poor tenants. Binilhaus squatters simply settle in vacant hillside areas or perhaps public open up spaces with no rights of land possession and/or building permits.
A research conducted by Ha, Shin and Seong (2002) identified that 10, 930 households with 35, 000 persons lived in plastic houses inside the Seoul location. 3. two Beoljip: These are various kinds of cellar or attic residences in low-income housing areas. Almost all of the Beoljip can be found near the professional areas with low-income laborers as residents. 3. three or more Jjogbang: These are one type of rental accommodations which has a daily spend system for the lowest profits groups plus the homeless. Not of very good people live in these types of places to stay. Page a few 4. Korean Government’s projects to face the problem:
Before the sixties there was zero redevelopment plan on the rising slums. During the period coming from 1961 to 1972, a fresh policy of removal and maintenance for slum and resettlement was adopted, leading to new flat buildings and resettled neighborhoods (Ha 2004b). From 62 to 1970, about 45, 000 low-income households had been relocated to twenty new areas where there were no planned non commercial areas such as hillside and quasi-agricultural areas, where living conditions were not very good (Ha, Shin and Seong). The entire removing approach was attempted via 1974 to 1982.
Back in the 1980s, the government formulated a five-year real estate supply plan with the objective of constructing a couple of million homes from 1988 to 1992; this program was more or less good (Ha 2004a). Korean real estate policies aimed at providing subsidized apartments to middle course consumers. Community sector businesses like Korean Land Corporation and the Korea National Housing Corporation designed and presented inexpensive terrain to homebuilders, who in return sold apartments rentals at governed prices (Hwang and John). The casing regeneration task included 3 components: Redevelopment, Improvement, and Rebuilding (Ha 2004b).
four. 1 Redevelopment: This task is named the ‘Joint Redevelopment Project’ (JRP), where the connection of landlords and the housing developer(s) agree with certain terms and conditions and create new flats according to government polices. In the end the property owner gets a flat to live in, and the creator makes gain selling excessive flats. The buildings happen to be 15- twenty-five stories and on average 118 m2 (Lee, Chung and Kim 55-80). Once the properties and related facilities are made by the creator, it is then simply sold to homeowners in a lot and houses according with their original section.
Page 6 Although the program was intended to provide house to the indegent it did not do so because there were various households whom could not find the money for to pay for the expansion work, thus they sold their talk about and relocated outwards in the city and formed new slums. This kind of project brought profit to get the developers and middle class persons however , who have could spend the money for work. Moreover, serious man rights infractions occurred because of the eviction of unwilling owners or renters; again, tenants had tiny rights below this program.
In Seoul 720, 000 citizens were evicted from their homes between the numerous years of 1985 and 1988 (Ha 2004a). 4. 2 Improvement: The second kind of housing reconstruction scheme is definitely the ‘Improvement of Residential Environment’, created in 1989, that has been designated around the area the place that the buildings were very outdated and improvement needed. As opposed to JRP, the goal of this program was to enhance refuge for squatters without displacing them. That required a nearby government to provide much of the infrastructure for new or perhaps rehabilitated houses.
Under the program’s individual improvement scheme, occupants rehabilitated their housing, like the self-help housing throughout the 1970s, but the govt relaxed home codes and provided cost-effective loans. With this program, the resident updating alternative allegedly placed citizens in charge, nonetheless they may shortage the skills, technology, and knowledge necessary to take care of home improvement. four. 3 Reconstructing: The rebuilding took place within the provision of revised restrictions of ‘Act on the Promo of Casing Construction’ in 1993.
Properties more than 20 years old could possibly be reconstructed under this work, but almost 76. 2% rebuilding took place abusing the exceptional condition of law. The land owners and developers discovered it lucrative to restore the houses because of the rising styles of Web page 7 apartments, moreover simply by rebuilding they could boost the number of houses. Lee and Ahn (2007) have determined five procedures executed by the government, they are really: ¢ Area development tasks ¢ Real estate units source programs ¢ Reconstruction or perhaps redevelopment programs ¢ Community housing source or support instruments ¢ Tax rewards and housing fund or perhaps loan supports
The guidelines had the subsequent goals (1) mass supply and development of hosing units, (2) stability of house value or the control over real estate rumours, (3) living stability to get the low cash flow bracket and (4) vitalization of casing. In their latest research Lee and Ahn concluded that the us government housing guidelines were successful. The non commercial environment improvement projects have been completely initiated by simply communities. The federal government has drawn up plans to provide support for this project by providing 1 , 000, 000 public casing units simply by 2013, pertaining to low-income communities.
The focus of residential environment improvement projects is to increase illegal and deteriorated casing and to keep public services under the Act on Temporary Measures for the advance of Home and Other Home for that pet for Low-income Urban Citizens, enacted in 1999. According to the Act, local government should improve the urban infrastructure inside the areas selected for household environment improvement projects. Finally, the government passed the Enclosure Law in 2003 which in turn states that government should establish lowest housing regular and concern should be given to those who are living below these standards (Ha 2004b).
Ministry of Building and Site 8 Travel (MOCT) announced a long term housing master want to improve the countrywide dwelling wealth and balance (Lee and Ahn). four. Conclusions: The housing sector in Seoul could not cope with the rapid industrialization and rural metropolitan migration. To face this problem the federal government has implemented many plans, some of which did not work as effectively as they had been supposed to do, just like JRP containing gotten belittled for favoring the wealthy rather than the poor.
Although the study on the effectiveness of government procedures conducted by Lee and Ahn provides concluded that govt policies were effective, Ha (2004b) has criticized the housing plans for being over centralized and over controlled by the national government. This has weakened the role of municipal government in real estate. To solve the housing challenges and to get rid of the illegal or substandard home for that pet, the Korean language government may take the following measures in terms of policy measure: ¢ Decentralization of administration and industrial sectors.
Korea can relocate several of its time-consuming industries to other locations, where the populace density is not so excessive. The government ought to create job opportunities in the countryside areas in order that rural downtown migration is low. ¢ The government should certainly involve Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) and Community Based Agencies (CBO) and members with the civil society in preparing and in policy formulation and implementation stages. Local government ought to be strengthened and given tasks to apply housing plans in effort of residents.
¢ It can be surprising that the life from the buildings in Seoul are just 20 years, following 20 years the homeowners demolish the building and make a new building with a better number of condominiums. Page on the lookout for The owners and programmers are interested in demolition because they will get gained due to growing trend of apartment expense. But buildings should be constructed with strong components, so that they last at least 100 years. The us government should take procedures in that line because structure after every 20 years causes interference in the community, environmental challenges, as well as pointless costs.
¢ All the before policies of the government failed to eliminate the slums because they were not expert poor. You can a section from the population with very low salary who would be unable to afford investing in a flat. The government should formulate policies to cope with this section in the population, just like building houses and booking them to a nominal price, which after five years they can become the owner. The government may also give away apartments to the really poor totally free or which has a nominal cost. ¢ Govt financial policies should be such that the housing prices are certainly not so high.
A study conducted by simply Cho and Ma (2006) found a long negative sense of balance relationship involving the interest rate and housing worth. So , by controlling the interest, housing benefit can be handled. Page twelve
Cho, G. and Mother, S. “Dynamic Relationship between Housing Values and Rates of interest in the Korean Housing Market. Journal of Real Estate Financing and Economics 32 (2006): 169-184. St?lla till med ett, Seong. K. “Housing Poverty and the Part of Metropolitan Governance in Korea. Environment and Urbanization. sixteen. 1 (2004): 139- one hundred fifty five. Ha, Seong-K., Shin, Myong-Ho and Seo, Jong-Gyun.
“The Last Resort of Destitute Households in Korea; Investigation Survey on Vinyl fabric House Residential areas and Actual Conditions of its occupants. Analysis Report 2000-2, 2002. St?lla till med ett, Seong. K. “Urban Poor and Real estate Regeneration in Seoul Oriental Real Estate Society 2004 Foreign Conference. New Delhi, India. 9-12 August, 2004. dua puluh enam April 3 years ago. “Dwelling Age group, Redevelopment, and Housing Prices: The Case of Apartment Processes in Seoul Journal of Real Estate Financial and Economics 30: 1 (2005): 55-80. Lee, Jin K. and Ahn Kun H. “Categorization and Success of Korean language Housing Plan ” A great Analysis of Effectiveness and Price Effects. 2002. 27 The spring 2007 1
“Dwelling Age group, Redevelopment, and Housing Prices: The Case of Apartment Processes in Seoul Journal of Real Estate Financial and Economics 30: 1 (2005): 55-80. Lee, Jin K. and Ahn Kun H. “Categorization and Success of Korean language Housing Plan ” A great Analysis of Effectiveness and Price Effects. 2002. 27 The spring 2007 1