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The effects of tension alcohol result expectancies

yles, andFamily Addiction to alcohol on Alcohol Consumption

The Effects of Tension, Alcohol Outcome Expectancies, Male or female, Coping Variations, and

Family Alcoholism on Alcohol Consumption

Study Proposal by simply

Josh Robbins


Nov 26, 1996

Economics 143


One large element of American well-known culture today is alcohol. A

prevalent stereotype pertaining to the effects of alcoholic beverages is that as a drug it acts as a

tension antagonist. This theory was introduced by Conger (1956) as the Tension

Reduction Hypothesis (TRW). This states that alcohols relaxing action for the

central nervous system acts to reduce anxiety, and because anxiety reduction

is usually reinforcing, people drink to escape it (Marlatt, Rehsenow, 1980). Why do we

drink, when do we drink, and exactly how much do we drink? This research can determine

the correlation between total every week consumption of alcohol and perceived stress

alcohol final result expectancies, gender, coping models, and family history of

dependency on alcohol among undergrad students. Do people drink significantly more or much less when

burdened? Do liquor outcome expectancies lead to larger or reduced consumption?

Can be described as history of relatives alcoholism positively or in a negative way correlated to

personal consumption? Do the examined variables perform mediating or moderating

jobs in stress-related drinking? This research is going to determine the answers to

these inquiries, and decide the strength of the correlations, if any.


The main problem that this record model will answer can be as follows:

Can there be any correlation between consuming and sexuality, alcohol expectancies

family addiction to alcohol, stress, and coping models?


It has been demonstrated that significant differences are present between the

ingesting patterns of men and women (Hilton, 1988). In a survey of US drinking

behaviors conducted 23 years ago by the ALL OF US National Middle for Health Statistics, Dawson

and Archer (1992) revealed that there are three areas illustrating gender

dissimilarities. The first is you see, the number of men and female consumers. The

analyze showed that 64% of men vs . 41% of ladies were current drinkers. Second

men had been more likely to ingest alcohol on a daily basis (17. your five grams of ethanol

per day versus eight. 9 grams for women). Third, males were more likely to be

grouped as heavy drinkers. In fact , when the classification measure of a

heavy drinker was transformed from five drinks or even more per day to nine drinks or

even more per day the ration of male to female heavy drinkers improved by a factor

of 3.


Are the hypotheses mentioned above regarding stress-induced having accurate?

There were studies which in turn disprove the strain Reduction Speculation. For

occasion, in a analyze by Conway, Vickers, Keep, and Rahe in 81 it was located

that the intake of alcohol among Navy officers during periods an excellent source of job

demands was actually lower than the consumption during low-demand periods.

Additionally , some consumers have been proven to consider alcohol as a pressure

generator rather than a tension reducer.

Alcohol Expectancies

The targets of what effects alcohol consumption may have got play an

important role in drinking patterns. These expectancies first develop in

child years as indirect learning experiences (media, relatives modeling, peer

influence) and, as a result of improved direct experience with the

medicinal effects of liquor, become more refined (Christiansen, Goldman

, Inn, 1982). Do the expectations that people carry about liquor decently

forecast consumption? Some people believe that alcohol consumption will increase

lovemaking and aggressive behavior, or otherwise boost social encounters. Many

people subscribe to the view outside the window that alcoholic beverages acts as liquid courage.


The dependent variable just for this research will probably be Weekly Liquor

Consumption (WEEK), measured by total number of drinks consumed in a week.

A standard beverage is defined as a 12-ounce bottle/can of beer, 1 . 5 ounce taken of

liquor, or a a few ounce cup of wine beverages. The predictor variables would include the

trick variable GENDER, where D1=1 for a male, STRESS, alcohol expectancies

(EXPECT), family alcohol dependency (FAMILY), and difference coping styles (COPE).

The complete set of possible considerable variables will be: Perceived

Pressure, Family History of Alcoholism, Problem-Focused Coping, Emotion-Focused

Coping, Much less Useful Dealing, and Drinking to Cope. To get alcohol expectancy

outcomes, the next variables would be useful: Sociability, Tension

Lowering, Liquid Valor, Sexuality, Intellectual, Behavioral Impairment, Risk

Aggression, and Self Perception. The information for this research project will be

gathered through research and questionnaires given to undergrad students in

one university, but not restricted to one division. An attempt needs to be made to

break up the test group approximately equivalent in terms of sexual intercourse. Since race/ethnicity

and age are not staying tested, they may be irrelevant in this study. Settlement

may be necessary (possibly a beer), since college students time is quite useful

and the customer survey may take about 30 minutes. There are numerous of

tests which presently exist which might be used to evaluate the subjects.

1 . Adapted Short Michigan Addiction to alcohol Screening Evaluation (Adapted SMAST)

This is a 13 item self-report set of questions developed by Sher and

Descutner in 1986 which can be designed to evaluate family history of alcoholism.

This is certainly a yes/no type of check, and is especially determines the extent associated with an

individuals father and mother alcohol abuse.

installment payments on your Comprehensive Associated with Alcohol (CEOA)

The CEOA (Fromme, Stroot & Kaplan, 1993) features 38 queries, and is

built to measure liquor outcome expectations. There are eight expectancy

weighing scales, four confident (sociability, tension-reduction, liquid-courage, and

sexuality) and three adverse (cognitive-behavioral disability, risk and

aggression, and self perception). The email address details are based on a five point scale

with 1 = disagree and 5 = agree.

a few. Perceived Anxiety Scale (PSS)

The PSS (Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) is actually a 14 item self-report

built to assess the degress to which circumstances in kinds life happen to be appraised

as stressful. You will discover 7 great and 7 negative questions.


The COPE (Carver et al., 1989) has 53 questions and is designed to

evaluate individual coping dispositions. This kind of test is pretty complicated, as it is

made up of 13 scales which are categorized in to 3 coping styles: Problem-Focused

Coping, Emotion-Focused Coping, and fewer than Valuable Coping (Denial, Behavioral

Disengagement, and Mental Disengagement). The main result we will be looking at

is a section named Drinking to Cope. This will help all of us find out if

people beverage to cope of course, if so , about what situations.


The regression equation with this research will be as follows: WEEKi = b0

+ b1(GENDER)i + b2(STRESS)i + b3(EXPECT)i + b4(FAMILY)i + b5(COPE)i

The predicted signs of the coefficients happen to be as follows:

b1: This is a dummy changing, with just 2 conceivable values, 0=female and


b2: Great. Increased tension leads to increased drinking

b3: Both. It will probably be positive with expectancy variables just like

Tension Reduction, liquid-Courage and Sexuality, while negative with Behavioral

Impairment, Risk, Aggression, and Home Perception

b4: Positive. You might expect a great alcoholic relatives would raise the

likelihood of an alcoholic child

b5: Great. If we limit this varying to Ingesting To Cope, it

should be confident.

I would plan to run a regression using one particular predictor adjustable at a time

then adding yet another variable till many opportunities have been

regressed, determining the correlation involving the different predictors. This

is going to determine too which predictors account for what percentage in the


Predicted Benefits

After determination of the correlation among weekly drinking and the 5

predictor adjustable discussed herein, we will be able to focus on which usually variables

have more effect, or more correlation. If the highest relationship is found in

the FAMILY varying, we know to spend additional time and money on programs which

promote Family Principles. If high correlation is located with the PRESSURE variable

we can direct each of our energies in order to college fewer stressful. This kind of research

must be used as a signal for what needs to be required for the future.


Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. Farrenheit., Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing dealing

strategies: A theoretically primarily based approach. Record of Personality and Interpersonal

Psychology, 56, 267-283. Christiansen, B. A., Goldman, Meters. S., Resort, A. (1982).

Development of alcohol-related expectancies in adolescents: Distancing

pharmacological from social-learning impacts. Journal of Consulting and

Clinical Mindset, 50, 336-344. Cohen, H., Kamarck, T., Mermelstein, Ur.

(1983). A worldwide measure of identified stress. Journal of Health and Social

Habit, 24, 385-396. Conger, L. J. (1956). Alcoholism: Theory, problem and

challenge. 2. Reinforcement theory and the mechanics of alcoholism. Quarterly

Record of Studies on Alcoholic beverages, 13, 296-305. Conway, Capital t. L., Vickers, R. R., Ward

L. W., Rahe, R. L. (1981). Occupational stress and variation in cigarette

espresso, and drinking. Journal of Health and Interpersonal Behavior, twenty two

155-165. Dawson, D. A., Archer, T. (1992). Male or female differences in alcoholic beverages

consumption: Associated with measurement. United kingdom Journal of Addiction, 87, 119-123.

Hilton, M. Elizabeth. (1988). Trends in US drinking habits: Further evidence from

earlier times 20 years. Uk Journal of Addiction, 83, 269-278. Marlatt, G. A

Rohsenow, G. J. (1980). Cognitive operations in alcohol work with: Expectancy plus the

balanced placebo design. In N. K. Mello (Ed. ). Advancements in Substance Abuse:

Behavioral and biological analysis, Vol. 1 . Greenwich: JAI Press. Sher, K. J.

, Descutner, C. (1986). Reports of familiar alcoholism: Dependability across

littermates. Journal of Addictive Behaviours, 11, 25-30.

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