1 . Black soils The key region of black soil is the Deccan plateau and its particular periphery advancing from 8°45’to 26o north latitude and 68o to 83o45′ east longitude. They may be formed coming from Deccan basalt trap rocks and take place in areas within the monsoon weather, mostly of semi-arid and sub-humid types. The overall environment of black soil area may be described as hot and dry summertime, 40-100 centimeter rainfall each year, mild to moderate winter seasons and annual temperature ranges from 24-30o centigrade, imply maximum temperatures during April-May ranges via 36~42°C arid mean lowest temperature during wintertime ranges by 15-24° centigrade.
Semi-arid to sub-humid, exotic to sub-tropical monsoon type climate with alternate dried out and moist periods and calcification (formation of calcium supplements carbonate) will be favourable to the formation of black soils.
The soils are characterised by darker grey to black shade with 35-60% clay, neutral to a little bit alkaline response, high inflammation and shrinkage, plasticity, profound cracks during summer and poor status of organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus.
Impeded drainage and low permeability are the main problems. Dark-colored soils. will be divided into superficial black ground of a depth of 30-50 cms, method black soils of 50-120 cm and deep dark soils of more than 120 cms. The all-natural vegetation comprises dry deciduous species, viz palas (Butes frondoss), sisam (Dalbergia sisu), neem (Azadirachta indica) and teak (Tectona grandis).
Organic cotton, sugarcane, groundnut, millets, maize, pulses, safflower are the prevalent crops produced on these types of soils. Due to their inherent draining problem, they are really prone to salinity and sodicity under irrigated conditions until proper draining is ascertained. Because of its excessive water retaining capacity, rainfed crops just like minor millets, pulses like horse gram are fruit and vegetables of different types and lemon or lime fruits can even be grown. These types of soils are also known as regurs, nullah regadi (a telugu word meaning black clay) and dark-colored cotton soil as organic cotton was the major crop cultivated in these soil.
2 . Reddish soils These soils will be derived from granite, gneiss and other metamorphic dirt. These soils are created under well drained condition. The local climate is semi-arid tropical with mean total annual temperature of 25°C and mean twelve-monthly rainfall from 75-100 centimeter. The soils are bigger textured, friable structure and has low sencillo salts. They can be slightly acidic to a little bit alkaline, well drained with moderate permeability. They are generally poor in nitrogen, phosphorus, lime, humus etc . Through this soil, lime concretions and free carbonates are missing. The reddish colored colour is caused by the higher degree of hydration in the fericoxide inside the soils. About uplands, they are really gravelly exotic or pebbly and porous and light coloured on which food crops just like bajra may be grown.
Within the lower plains and valleys, they are dark, coloured suitable for farming loams, irrigated crops just like maize, wheat, pulses, taters, fruits, millets etc could be grown. These types of soils are also found beneath forest plants. Sometimes that they found along with dark soils (side by side) and also yellow soils (red and discolored soils). Abnormal gravelliness, area crust formation and susceptibility to erosion due to excessive slopes are a few of the problems during these soils which can be overcome simply by adopting suited measures. Morphologically the red soils may be divided into crimson loams that have a cloddy structure and argillaceous dirt and crimson earths with loose friable top soil rich in sesquioxide type of mineral deposits.
3. Laterites and lateritic soils Laterite is a geological term and means practically a rock and roll. The laterites and lateritic soils had been loosely employed in the same perception. The lateritic soils will be enriched with oxides of iron and aluminium, underneath the conditions an excellent source of rainfall with alternate dry and moist periods. During rainfall silica is leached downwards and iron and aluminium oxides remains in the top layers. Laterites are usually shallow and gravelly for higher gets, but are very deep loam to clay-based soils inside the valleys where good terme conseill� crops are produced. Higher landy soil are poor in nutritional status where as lower level soil are darker and wealthier in nutrition and organic and natural matter. All lateritic soil are poor in calcium mineral, magnesium, nitrogen, phosphorus and potash.
They can be generally very well drained and porous. The soil effect is more for the acidic area. On laterites, as already mentioned, rice is usually grown by lower elevations and at bigger elevations, tea, coffee, cinchona, rubber and cashewnut may be grown under good ground management conditions. On the whole, laterites are poor in virility and conveniently respond to manuring and very good cultivation. Depending on the weather lateritic soils are assembled into large rainfall areas with highly and weakly expressed dried out season and humid zones with noticable dry & wet intervals.
4. Alluvial soils Alluvial soils, cover the largest location in India (approximately six lakh km2) and these are generally the most important soil from gardening point of view. The main features of limoneux soils had been derived as silt deposition laid down by the American indian river devices like the Indus, the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the waterways like Narmada, Tapti: Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery. These rivers carry the goods of weathering of rubble constituting the forest and deposit them along their route as they stream down the plain land towards sea. Geologically, the deposits is divided into recent deposits which is known as Khadar and old freehold, as bhangar. The more recent alluvium is usually sandy and lightweight coloured whereas older freehold is more clayey, dark colored and contains lime concretions. The soils have a wide range in soil characteristics viz. chemical p to alkaline sandy to clay, typical to saline, sodic and calcareous, low to very deep. The climate runs from arid to humid sub-tropical. This groupings of alluvial soil may be recognised: alluvial soil (Khadar, bhangar and remarkably calcareous), deltaic alluvium, seaside alluvium, seaside sands, calcareous sierocomic and grey-brown soil.
a. Limoneux soils The alluvial soils occuring in the Indo-Gangetic flatlands and the Brahmaputra valley cover a large place. The soil are transferred and deposited by the estuaries and rivers from the mother or father material. The rivers are definitely the Ganga, Jamuna, Brahmaputra and the tributaries. The soils will be deep and hard pans in the subsoil are calcareous (made of calcium carbonate) and acidic. These are poor in nitrogen, phosphorous and humus, but not in potash and lime scale. These soils are fertile amongst each of the soils of India. They will produce a wide variety of crops like rice, whole wheat, sugarcane, jute and spud. They are distributed mainly in the northern, north-western and north-eastern parts of the country.
n. Deltaic limoneux soils They are formed by sediments carried by estuaries and rivers and placed in the mouths of waterways joining the ocean. The deltas of the Chollo, Brahmaputra, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery are the most critical ones. In Gujarat, the deltaic alluvial soils which are sandy loam to clay loam will be locally named Goradu soils. The Godavari and Krishna rivers pass through basaltic place having black soils and these soil are dark and great textured. The Cauvery delta soils are significantly clayey and Ganga delta soil show excessive accumulation of organic matter, as in the Sunderbans of West Bengal, due to swampy vegetation. These types of soils will be fertile and grow a multitude of crops suitable for climatic conditions.
c. Coastal deposits Soils created on seaside alluvium are located along, the sea coasts. Soil are dark coloured, coarse textured and poor in fertility. Several soils happen to be saline because of the inundation of sea water. Such soils in the Konkan coast of Maharashtra these are known as Khar soil.
d. Seaside sands Soft sand soils happen prominently in the coastal part of Tanjavur section of Tamil Nadu, along the Kerala coastline, Bapatla in Guntur distrjct of Andhra Pradesh and Puri district in Orissa. If soft sand soils aren’t saline, planting crops just like coconut, cashew and casuarina can be adopted for fostering.
Other soil under freehold are calcareous sierozomes and gray brown soil. Calcareous sierozomes can be seen in the desertic region of Haryana and Punjab. The word ‘sierozem” denotes several soils creating a brownish-grey surface area horizon having a sub-layer of carbonates which can be developed underneath mixed plant vegetation in a-temperate to cool, dry climate. Grey-brown soils as the brand itself signifies its mother nature, can be found in, wilderness soils of Rajasthan.
a few. Desert soil In the north-western part of India, desert soil occur more than an area of 0. twenty nine million hecta, res, which includes a major part of Rajasthan, south of Haryana and Punjab and northern component to Gujarat. Rainfall ranges from less than twelve cms to 50 cms, mostly added during monsoon season. Areas consists of sand dunes and undulating sandy plains. The temperature plan is very high throughout the year and a maximum of 50-60°C is documented during summer season. Due to high temperature organic-matter accumulated is very low. The soils in the plains are mostly derived from alluvium and are pale brown to brownish to yellow-colored brown and fine sandy to loamy fine sand and are also structureless. The clay material low and presence of alkaline the planet carbonates is a crucial feature. The nitrate nitrogen and phosphorus makes the wilderness soils agricultural and productive under appropriate moisture source. By increasing the water holding capacity, the productivity of the soils can be increased which involves addition of organic matter and clay.
6. Tarai soils The phrase “tarai” is actually a hindi expression, which means damp. Thus, i\ is a rainy regime having high drinking water table. Tarai soils are foot hii soils and extend in strips of varying widths at the ft . of Himalayas in Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar-Pradesh, Bihar and West-Bengal. Soils under the natural circumstances are thickly vegetated and swampy. Several kinds of grasses and trees from your native vegetation on associated with which the soil become highly productive. The soils happen to be formed from the materials which can be washed straight down by the chafing of mountain range. They are alluvial origin. Large soil water content through the year leads to luxuriant vegetation dominated by tall grasses. They are neutral to a bit alkaline with significant amounts of organic matter. The texture varies from sandy loam to silty loam. Generally, these types of soils are fertile and by providing proper drainage, the productivity may be increased.