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|Document ID: |Standard Operating Procedures’ Title: |Print Date: | |ORIGIN-CA2 |CASSAVA PROCESSING |08/07/2012 | |Revision: |Written By simply: |Date Well prepared: | |01 |Ayodele At the. J.

AJAYI, General Administrator Operations |08/07/2012 | |Effective Date: |Reviewed By: |Date Reviewed: | |mm/dd/yyyy | |mm/dd/yyyy | | |Approved By: |Date Approved: | | | |mm/dd/yyyy | |Applicable Standard: None | |Company: SOURCE Group of Firms Limited Vegefresh Foods Limited, Nigeria.

| |In The african continent, cassava is usually used for human being consumption in several forms including boiling the fresh tuber to processing it into cassava flour. |[pic] Cassava starch in the making: freshly collected roots rotate | |along a conveyor belt in a control plant in Brazil | | | |[pic] | | | | | | | | | |Cassava Starch. | | | | |

Insurance plan: It is a coverage of this Organization to provide Common Operating Method documents that have instructions approach perform assigned tasks. Goal: The purpose of this document is to ensure that regimen tasks for the farm will be performed securely, qualitatively and compliance with applicable polices. Below are some of the ways, this kind of Standard Working Procedure would have direct or indirect impact on SOURCE Group’s Agric business overall performance: a) You need consistency to accomplish top functionality. This SOP will decrease system variant, which is the enemy of production performance and quality control. b) This SOP will facilitate training.

Having complete step-by-step instructions allows trainers ensure that nothing is skipped and provides a reference source of trainees. c) This SOP can be an exceptional reference record on how a task is done and what are the expectations by employees filling in on the careers they do not execute on a regular basis. d) This SOP can help in conducting functionality evaluations. They give a common understanding for what should be done and shared objectives for just how tasks happen to be completed. e) Employees can easily coach and support one another if there is records available on exactly how various tasks must be done and everyone knows what their co-workers are supposed to always be doing.

This could also help generate a more cooperative staff approach to obtaining all the daily tasks carried out correctly, every day. f) This kind of SOP motivates regular analysis of work activity and ongoing improvement in how everything is done. Scope: This SOP is crafted for Creation Managers, Laboratory Technician, Stock workers and Sales Vendors. The specific tasks within “Cassava Processing are covered. This kind of SOP does not cover the Cassava Production, Harvesting and Marketing. Duties: The Production Managers, Lab Specialist, Factory workers and Sales Distributors ought to be responsible for complementing and applying the Cassava Processing Manufacturer and revenue tasks.

The availability Manager is responsible for training and managing our factory Workers, Administrators, Lab Techs etc, Development Manager ought to support the objectives procedures of the Organization and provide input to further progress SOPs. They would be responsible for planning, organizing, supervising and managing those activities of the whole factory plus the routine maintenance of all manufacturing plant equipment. Manufacturer Workers are required to discharge their particular duties proficiently and in complying with the Standard Operating Types of procedures, work manual and equipment manual offered. The Standard Functioning Procedures 1 ) 0 Cassava processing Cassava processing aims at increasing the quality and storability of cassava tubers.

This kind of enhances the capacity of the maqui berry farmers to develop added products, just like baking goods out of cassava flour. It even more ensures lowering or total elimination of undesirable dangerous constituents in cassava in order that it is suitable for individual consumption. A. Producing Cassava Flour and Chips: I actually. Using low-cyanide varieties , Freshly harvested cassava can be peeled utilizing a knife. The peeled cassava is then cleaned and sliced into small pieces (chips). These are after that dried on a raised platform under direct sun for about 2 days and nights or specially-made driers, until moisture content material of about eight to a small portion is reached. Properly dried out chips turn into tough to break, but fall apart into flour when struck with a hard item such as a hammer.

The drying method should be done continuously and the drying chips really should not be exposed once again to water to avoid molding. The chips may then always be ground or milled in flour, dried chips store better than flour. II. Using high-cyanide varieties , Freshly uprooted cassava are peeled and chopped up into smaller sized pieces (chips). The sliced up chips are then dried out in the sun for about 3 times to regarding 14 % moisture content. The chips are after that soaked in water to get 8 hours, and dried out again to a moisture articles of about 8 %. W. Producing Gari , Fermented cassava money: Gari is actually a creamy-white or yellow dried cassava merchandise, common in West The african continent. It is made by peeling the outside of the tuber skin and washed. The washed tubers are then grated by using a grater.

It truly is then packed in carriers with gaps to drain off the liquefied and kept to ferment for one particular to 5 days, depending on the preferred flavour. The fermented material is then constrained to let out the extra normal water leaving a cassava cake. The remaining dessert is broken loose and spread upon frying metal trays over a fire. The particles will be fried till crisp and dry, regarding 10 % water content. The gari can then be cooled, sieved and packed for sale or storage. C. Cassava Starch extraction After washing and peeling, roots are roughly grated to release starch granules. The “starch milk” , water containing hung granules then, separated from your pulp, and after that the granules are separated from the drinking water by sedimentation or in a centrifuge.

At that point, the starch needs solar or artificial blow drying to remove moisture before getting milled, sieved and loaded. In non-industriel production devices, daily starch output varies from 60 to sixty kg of starch per worker, when semi-mechanized processing can yield up to twelve tonnes each day. In contemporary, fully mechanized starch removal plants, daily output is just as high because 150 considérations. Cassava Digesting Equipment We. Traditional cassava processing does not require complex equipment. Finalizing cassava in to gari needs equipment including grater, presser and fryer. The traditional cassava grater is made of flattened kerosene tin or perhaps iron piece perforated with nails and fastened on to a wooden board with handles.

Grating is done simply by rubbing the peeled origins against the rough perforated surface area of the flat iron sheet which will tears off the peeled cassava root drag into crush. In recent years, several attempts have already been made to improve graters. Graters which are belt-driven from a static five HP Répertorier type engine have been developed and are being extensively used in Nigeria. The capacity to grate cassava is about one load of fresh peeled roots per hour. 2. For depleting excess liquid from the grated pulp the sacks containing the grated pulpy mass are slowly and gradually pressed straight down using a 30-ton hydraulic plug press with wooden programs, before sieving and cooking into gari. Stones are used in traditional processing to press your excess water from the roughly grated pulp.

Tied wooden frames are used for this purpose in places where stones are not offered. Pans made out of iron or perhaps earthen cooking pots are used for cooking the fermented pulp. Energy wood is the mad or source of energy to get boiling, roasting, steaming and frying. Gas wood might not be easily and cheaply received in the future due to rapid deforestation. III. Moderate changes in the equipment used in control can help to save gas and lessen the soreness, health hazard, and drudgery intended for the working women. The economic success of any kind of future commercial development of cassava processing would depend upon the adaptability of each processing stage to mechanization.

However , the first step to take to get improvement of cassava technology should be to improve or change the simple digesting equipment or perhaps systems presently used, rather than to change entirely to fresh, sophisticated, and expensive equipment. Storage of cassava prepared products Digesting, particularly blow drying and roasting, increases life of cassava products. Very good storage depends upon what moisture content of the companies temperature and relative moisture of the storage space environment. The moisture articles of gari for safe storage is usually belong doze. 7%. The moment temperature and relative humidity are over 27C and 70% correspondingly, gari moves bad (Igbeka 1987). The kind of bag employed for packing likewise affects life depending on the capability of the material to maintain secure product wetness levels.

Jute and hessian bags will be recommended in dry great environments mainly because they enable good venting (Igbeka 1987). When gari, dried pulp and flour are well dried out and properly packed, they may be stored with no loss of top quality for over one year. Dried cassava balls (“kumkum”) can be stored for up to 2 years (Numfor end Ay 1987). “Chickwangue”, “Myondo” and “Bobolo” can be preserved for up to 1 week but they could be kept for several more days and nights when recooked. Cassava leaves as veggie I. Cassava shoots of 30 cm length (measured from the apex) are farmed from the vegetation. The hard petioles are removed and the blades and young petioles will be pounded using a pestle within a mortar.

A variation of this method involves blanching the leaves before racing. The causing pulp can now be boded for approximately 30-60 mins. In some countries, the 1st boiled water is decanted and substituted. Pepper, palm-oil and other fragrant ingredients will be added. The mixture can now be boiled intended for 30 minutes (Numfor and Ay 1987). Contrary to the beginnings that are essentially carbohydrate, cassava leaves are a good source of healthy proteins and vitamins which can supply a valuable product to mainly starchy diet plans. Cassava leaves are rich in protein, calcium mineral, iron and vitamins, contrasting favorably with other green vegetables generally regarded as good protein sources.

The protein composition of cassava leaves shows that, except for methionine, the main amino acid principles in cassava exceed the ones from the FAO reference healthy proteins (Lancaster and Brooks 1983). II. The entire essential protein content pertaining to cassava tea leaf protein is similar to that seen in hen’s egg and is more than that in oat and rice materials, soybean seedling, and kale leaf (Yeoh and Chew 1976). As the vitamin articles of the leaves is large, the finalizing techniques for preparing the leaves for consumption can lead to huge losses. For example , the long term boiling linked to making Photography equipment soups or stews, ends in considerable lack of vitamin C. III. Cassava leaves contact form a significant section of the diets in many countries in Africa.

They are employed as one of the recommended vegetables in many cassava developing countries, specifically in Zaire, Congo, Gabon, Central African Republic, Angola, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. The cassava leaves well prepared as vegetable are called “sakasaka” or “pondu” in Zaire, Congo, Central African Republic and Sudan, “Kizaka” in Angola, “Mathapa” in Mozambique, “Chigwada” in Malawi, “Chombo” or “Ngwada” in Zambia, “Gweri” in Cameroon, “Kisanby” in Tanzania, “Cassada leaves” in Macizo Leone, “Banankou boulou nan” in Mali, “Mafe haako bantare” in Guinea, and “Isombe” in Rwanda. They can be mostly dished up as a spices which is ingested with chickwangue, fufu, and boiled cassava. Revision Record: Revision |Date |Description of changes |Requested By | |01 |08/07/2012 |Initial Release | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | References: http://www. fao. org/index_en. htm http://www. fao. org/ag/agp/agpc/gcds/ [pic]

The Global Cassava Partnership, a pool formed , under the auspices of the FAO-facilitated Global Cassava Development Technique , by simply international organizations, including FAO, CIAT, IFAD and IITA, national exploration institutions, NGOs and private associates. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). Starting a Cassava Farm ” IPM Field Guide for Extension cables Agents. 08, International Company of Exotic Agriculture (IITA). Disease Control in Cassava Farms. IPM Field Guidebook for Extension Agents, International Institute of Tropical Farming (IITA). Bud Control in Cassava Farms. 2000. IPM Field Guidebook for Extension Agents, In-Service Training Trust (ISTT). Cassava Production Field Guide. 08. NRDC Campus, Lusaka, Nyimba, zambia. , , , , , , , , ORIGIN Group’s SOP: Confidential and Private Page 6th

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