Lymphomas are a group of malignant tumors (cancers) that develop via lymphatic tissue and especially from growing lymphocytes. They are of three types, namely Hodgkin’s lymphoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and Burkitt’s lymphoma (which may also be considered as a kind of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma). The incidence of lymphoma in america is about sixty four, 000 annually, and more than 493, 000 are living with the disease (Leukemia and Lymphoma Society 2006).
Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a unique malignant symptom in which the lymphoid tissues present throughout the body are involved (undergo painless enlargement), and is seen as the presence of selected tumor called ‘Reed-Sternberg cells’ (Mackie and Ludlam 1996). The incidence of Hodgkin’s lymphoma in the US is around 7, 500 annually (Portlock and Yahalom 2000). Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas are a group of cancerous tumors that arises from the lymphoid tissues and is characterized by the malignant multiplication and growth of the lymphocytes.
The Reed-Sternberg cells happen to be absent. Non-Hodgkin’s can develop in almost any site of the body such as the lymph nodes, spleen, lean meats, bone marrow, digestive tract, human brain, etc . 70 % coming from all lymphomas belong to the non-Hodgkin’s variety (Mackie and Ludlam 1996), regarding 50, 1000 people created this condition in america in 1997 (Shipp and Harris 2000). Burkitt’s lymphoma can be an hostile variant of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma that arises from the B-lymphocytes. It is associated with the EB virus, and even more often occurs in small children (Mackie and Ludlam 1996).
The exact reason for Lymphomas and the manner in which the illness occurs continues to be not recognized properly. Several factors including immunodeficiency states (which may be inborn or acquired), infectious illnesses, chemical substances (including certain medicines, solvents, pesticides or herbicides, fertilizers, herbicides, etc), physical agents, autoimmune conditions, and so forth, may be linked to the disease (Shipp and Harris 2000). In immune disorders, the human body’s defense mechanism is affected, and persistent antigenic stimulation may result in the advancement lymphomas.
In a number of congenital disorders, such as Wiscott-Alcridge syndrome, common variable immunodeficiency and extreme combined immunodeficiency may be related to certain lymphomas. Many acquired immune disorders just like post-transplant claims, AIDS, government of immunosuppressant, etc, may be associated with lymphomas. Persons suffering from various autoimmune disorders such as Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, Sjogren’s syndrome, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and so forth, may be linked to lymphomas.
Several infectious agents such as They would. pylori, EB virus, HTL Virus-1, Hepatitis C malware, Kaposi’s Sarcoma-causing virus (that is linked to the HIV virus) may be associated with the development of lymphomas (Shipp and Harris 2000). Genetic factors also perform a very important part ion the introduction of lymphomas, while the incidence is larger in brothers and sisters (than normal population) and identical baby twins (compared to nonidentical twins) (Portlock and Yahalom 2000).
The tumor cells present in Hodgkin’s lymphoma is known as ‘Reed-Sternberg cells’ (large in size with 2 nucleus) which may be present in lower quantities compared to various other inflammatory skin cells. Depending on the amount as well as the manifestations with the Reed-Sternberg cells, Hodgkin’s lymphoma can be categorized into 5 types. As the quantity of Reed-Sternberg cellular material increases as well as the lymphocytes drop, the diseases progresses, propagates to several parts of the body (including the extra-nodal sites) and has a poorer final result (Portlock and Yahalom 2000).
Various methods are currently useful to stop and fight the illness namely, radiotherapy and radiosurgery, chemotherapy, cuboid marrow hair transplant, immunotherapy, Angiogenesis Inhibitors, and gene therapy (ehealth MARYLAND 2004). These specific modalities may be required alone or along with each other to effectively treat the disease and reduce the adverse-effects.
Chemotherapy may be the administration of certain providers (usually utilizing multiple drugs) into the blood that ruins the cancerous cells and reduces their particular uncontrollable multiplication (Shipp and Harris 2000). Radiotherapy is administered to the influenced site to shrink how big the growth by eliminating cancerous cellular material. Both these therapies may be required in conjunction with each other (ehealth MD 2004). Bone marrow transplantations are performed to replace the bone marrow affected while using chemotherapy and replace with healthy tissues that can bring back the WBC counts (Mackie and Ludlam 1996).
Immunotherapy is a treatment modality through which certain substances known as ‘cytokines’ are administered which promote the light blood cells to capture and destroy the cancerous skin cells. Some of the cytokines that are frequently utilized include interferon and interleukin. Monoclonal antibodies can be administered that help the body’s defense cellular material to deal with the cancer cells. They usually attach themselves towards the cancerous cells, which are later on identified and destroyed by the white bloodstream cells.
Vaccines are also staying manufactured that could prevent attacks associated with lymphoma. Angiogenesis Inhibitors are medications that prevent the formation of new arteries in the body. They can be used locally in regards to the tumor, such that the blood vessels that feed the tumor are destroyed. In this way the cancerous skin cells are starving of nourishment and may slowly and gradually degenerate. Gene therapy involves improving the problem in the DNA so that the malignant cells tend not to multiply uncontrollably, or specific molecules will be attached which may cause the cancerous cell to die (ehealth MD 2004).
E-Health MD. Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. [Internet]. 2004 [cited 2007 Interest 16]. Available from: http://www.ehealthmd.com/library/lymphoma/NHL_treatment.html
Mackie, MJ, Ludlam, CALIFORNIA 1996. Diseases of the Blood vessels. Edwards, CRW, Bouchier, IAD, Haslett, C, editors Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine. 17th impotence. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. p. 815-821.
Portlock, CS, Yahalon, J 2000. Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. Goldman, M, Bennett, JC, editors Book of Medicine. twenty-first ed. Phila.: W. N. Saunders. l. 969-977.
Shipp, MA, Harris NL 2000. Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas. Goldman, L, Bennett, JC, editors Textbook of Medicine. twenty-first ed. Phila.: W. B. Saunders. s. 962-969.
The Leukemia and Lymphoma World. Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. [Internet]. 2007 [cited 2007 Apr 16]. Available via: http://www.leukemia-lymphoma.org/all_page?item_id=7030