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43227410

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TABLE OF CONTENT DECLARATIONi TABLE OF CONTENT…………………………………………………………. ……. ii-iii CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION……………………………………, , , , , , , ,.

. 1 1 ) 1 History of the Study1 1 . 1 . 1 The Kenyan Bare cement Industries3 1 ) 2 Assertion of the Problem4 1 . several Objectives of the Study5 1 . 4 Significance of the Study5 1 . your five Justification for the Study6 1 . 6 Scope with the study6 PHASE TWO: LITERARY WORKS REVIEW7 2 . 0 Introduction7 2 . you The concept of green procurement7 2 . 2 Understanding of Green Procurement inside the Cement Industry7 2 . Green Procurement Practises in the Concrete Industry9 installment payments on your 4 The effect of Green Procurement around the Performance with the Organization10 2 . 5. Conceptual framework11 PART THREE: EXPLORATION METHODOLOGY13 3. 0 Introduction13 3. you Research Design13 3. two Target Population13 Table 3. 1: Target Population and Sample Size14 3. 3 Sampling and Sample techniques14 3. 5 Data Collection Instruments15 a few. 5 Info Collection Procedure15 3. 6th Data Analysis15 REFERENCES17 APPENDICES20 Appendix My spouse and i: Introduction Letter20

Appendix 2: Research Questionnaire21 Appendix 3: Budget26 Appendix IV: Time Schedule27 PHASE ONE: LAUNCH 1 . you Background in the Study Environmental issues have become a subject of critical concern for businesses in recent years worldwide. Environmental obligations have grown substantially as society turns into more aware of its environment. Legislation relating to the environment is increasing in number, and companies have to be environmentally liable by taking a proactive posture on voluntary initiatives.

Consequently , it is essential that they can deliver affordable quality goods and services in preferred time frame. Tenir and Vander Linde (1995) proved that properly designed environmental criteria can induce innovations that improve beliefs, ultimately increased resource production that makes companies more competitive. Green purchase is a way in which environmental impacts enjoy an important function in purchase decisions, with procurement representatives concerned about more than just price and quality.

Firms which satisfaction themselves upon environmental stewardship and innovative care of the planet may use green procurement, among many other strategies, to ensure that they actually business in an environmentally responsible way. Many aspects of the procurement procedure may be modified to meet a mission of environmental sustainability (Williams, 2000). Within a purchase office, green procurement may involve within office procedures which are built to benefit the planet.

For example , instead of having persons submit purchase orders and requests on paper, the purchase office may possibly switch to electronic methods of communication so that daily news is certainly not wasted. Any office might also engage in environmentally friendly pursuits like reducing energy usage, keeping plants throughout the office to improve air quality, or buying co2 offsets to compensate for workplace energy consumption. During the purchase process, green procurement consists of seeking out items which are made sustainably (Williams, 2000).

Over a simple level, green procurement can press companies to search out office items made from environmental products, or perhaps products manufactured by companies that happen to be committed to environmental stewardship. Work might also require minimal packaging on the goods it purchases, look for goods moved with bio-diesel, look for manufacturing features which bear environmental certification, or indicate to potential suppliers that it would choose products via companies that are committed to minimizing waste and benefiting the planet.

Procuring goods which are eco responsible can be quite a challenging occupation both in the corporation and the procurement officers. Going green can make your products more appealing to big buyers and consumers, decrease waste disposal and operating costs, and help you comply with significantly stringent environmental regulations (Alsop and Content, 1995). Alternatively building environmental concerns in to procurement may appear only to supplment your costs, power you to buy products of inferior quality and cost you time and effort.

There are many of obstructions for applying green procurement programs and this include, deficiency of readily available environmental friendly goods, zero or perhaps expensive environmental alternatives, incorrect studies, lack of organizational support and incorrect or unsupported environmental says by the manufacturers and suppliers. Others happen to be legislation, organizational policies, and directives, environmental management devices or multiple – horizontal agreements typically require organizations to put into action a green purchase program (Worrell, Martin, Hendriks and Meida, 2001).

Marking and qualification requirements change, so a natural procurement expert may think that he or she is doing the right thing by procuring an item which contains a “green” label and later learn which the product is not more environmentally dependable than regarding a rival, even though it is more expensive. Good procurement representatives will research their options with care, spending some time to confirm that the claims made by a company will be accurate and comparing data from several sources to determine which merchant is the best (Alsop and Content, 1995).

Firms which participate in green purchase processes may be eligible for environmental certification, formal recognition through the government, and also other perks. Predicting a sustainable image can be a valuable promotion which an organization may use to get an edge on the competition. Environmental recommends also mention that as increasing numbers of companies require green procurement, the market intended for environmentally sustainable products expands, making them less expensive and better to obtain.

These advocates hope to see green procurement turning into the norm, instead of an unusual celebration (Worrell, Martin, Hendriks and Meida, 2001). 1 . 1 . 1 The Kenyan Concrete Industries The main cement making industries in Kenya happen to be, the East African Portland Cement and Bamburi Cement. Bamburi Bare cement Ltd. opened in 51 by Felix Mandl , a movie director of Cementia Holding A. G. Zurich. Cementia after went into collaboration with Green Circle PLC (UK). In 1989, Lafarge, the world’s largest building materials group, acquired Cementia, and thus became an equal aktion�r with Blue Circle.

Lafarge bought Green Circle in 2001 to become the largest building materials business in the world and Bamburi Concrete Limited rule shareholder. Bamburi Cement is definitely the largest bare cement manufacturing organization in the region as well as Mombasa flower is the second largest concrete plant in sub-Saharan The african continent. It is also one of the largest manufacturing export earners in Kenya, exporting twenty eight per cent of its creation in 1998.

You read ‘A Survey around the Impact of Green Procurement’ in category ‘Essay examples’ Export marketplaces include Re-union, Uganda and Mayotte (Coito, 2004).

The East Photography equipment Portland Bare cement Company (EAPCC) started as a trading organization importing cement mainly coming from England for early building work in East Africa. It had been formed by simply Blue Group Industries British. The identity Portland was given due to the similarity in color of set bare cement to the Portland stone that was extracted on the Isle of Portland in Dorset, England. For more than 70 years, East Africa Portland Bare cement Company has become Kenya’s leading cement maker. By providing the , lifeblood’ of the country’s construction market, the company features played a central function in country building.

The EAPCC provides greatly extended its creation capacity while using introduction of Mill No . 5 with present creates over 1 . 3 million tonnes of cement each year (Detwiler and Tennis, 1996). 1 . a couple of Statement with the Problem Sustainability in procurement is a growing business and social sensation, as organizations around the world try to align their operations using their sustainability priorities, whether to source ethically, reduce their particular environmental effect or to support their number communities.

All sorts of organizations will be being embroiled in these developments, including regional and central governments, public sector institutions, charitable agencies and businesses large and small. This kind of naturally includes a cascading effect on suppliers who require to foresee these market changes in so that it will meet the evolving requirements with their clients (Alsop and Detras, 1995). The Kenyan cement industry is actually not left behind either.

Through the Kyoto protocol, the federal government has set up policies and polices which should be adhered to by the players inside the industries including cement making industries. The process of cement manufacturing involves a lengthy process and combinations of materials in whose by , products will be released in to the environment. This poses a fantastic challenge and threat to environmental sustainability especially to folks around the factories and the employees in the sectors (Terra, 2007).

According to Coito, (2004), through the Kyoto protocol, the government has set up specifications for environmental sustainability practises to ensure that the operations of the industries will not interfere with the planet around them, yet , due to the nature of the bare cement manufacturing sectors, they pose a greater risk to the environment and this necessitates a critical understanding on how the practice of green procurement is completed in these sectors. As the gap among green purchase and the operate activities of institutions carry on and widen considerably it poses a major challenge to the sustainability of the environment.

The experts have been enthusiastic to carry out this research in order to reduce this kind of disparity by simply encouraging the society to understand on the effect of the green procurement. Through green procurement the end items of an corporation are environmentally friendly to the consumers, the cost of development is lowered hence larger profits towards the organization and cheaper prices to the buyers, the products will be of high quality and the consumers of such goods are happy, however due to the `nature with the cement creation, his turns into a big obstacle to the businesses and therefore this calls for a crucial understanding about how the try out is accomplished in these industrial sectors and how it affects goods. The study intends to find answers to the pursuing questions, the actual cement making industries practice green procurement? What is the impact of green procurement on the organizational performance? 1 . 3 Objectives from the Study The objectives with this study contain, i.

To determine the extent to which the procurement staff within the concrete manufacturing industries appreciate the concept of green procurement. ii. To investigate how green procurement is definitely carried out by the procurement officers in bare cement manufacturing companies. iii. To ascertain the impact of green procurement on the efficiency of the businesses. 1 . some Significance in the Study The Procurement officials The study will enable the procurers to appreciate green purchase as a current practise which in turn must be given willing attention and carried in a way that ensures environmental sustainability.

The procurers will discover this research important in particular those who do not have the green purchase competence and hence seek for more information to enable all of them execute the practise with out difficulties. Organizations’ management Through this examine, the managers will be enlightened on the influence of green procurement the benefits and impacts towards the organizations and the law, so as to plan and incorporate it in the organizations’ plans. This will ensure that such organizations accomplish their purchase process in ways which shows concern pertaining to environmental durability.

The Government The analysis will help the government in analyzing the practice of green procurement inside the industries, perhaps the cement companies are sticking with the collection regulations and rules. This will be a benchmark for the government to assess the set down rules as well as the level of conformity by the industrial sectors. The Academicians This study will contact form a basis for further studies on green procurement and add onto the current literature about procurement and environmental durability. 1 . 5 Justification intended for the Study

In the cement developing process on the market, the product undergoes various levels before the development of the final product. Throughout the product life circuit (PLC), the industry has its own potential environmental impacts and it must handle restoring fatigued limestone quarries, minimizing toxins, reducing release of co2 and influences from dust and traffic or different air pollutants such as NOx and SOx which are primarily emitted in process of strength consumption in baking of cement. Consequently , the market must supply a mechanism of dealing with the waste within a responsible and acceptable manner.

This is why the researchers have come up with this study to be able to assess the way the cement industrial sectors apply saving money procurement policies regardless of the form of operations they carry out. 1 . 6 Scope of the analyze The study will focus on the effect of green procurement within the cement manufacturing industries. Will probably be carried out in Blue Triangle and Bamburi cement – Athi Lake. The study will certainly target the procurement departments within the two organizations. The respondents intended for the study will be drawn from employees working in individuals departments. CHAPTER TWO: LITERARY WORKS REVIEW 2 . 0 Introduction

The phase reviews the literature linked to green purchase, its importance and impact on the organization that carry out the process. 2 . 1 The concept of green procurement Green Procurement can be stated as the purchase of products and services which are environmentally friendly. The items or providers procured should have a lower effect on the environment above their expereince of living cycle compared to the standard comparable. It requires the integration of environmental problems, such as air pollution prevention and reduction of waste in procurement decisions along with traditional elements such as cost, performance and quality (Williams, 2000).

Green Procurement includes practices which in turn encourage suppliers to safeguard the surroundings by generating goods or offering companies that do certainly not harm the environment or bring about heavy use of resources just like energy when ever being used (Williams, 2000). These kinds of practices contain, use of products made employing recycled elements, use of cost effective or low energy-consuming goods, procuring goods that use alternative fuel for example solar, bio-diesel, and ethanol, use of bio-degradable materials and use of non-ozone layer depleting substances (Perry and Singh, 2002).. a couple of Appreciation of Green Purchase in the Cement Industry Eco friendly procurement is a growing global trend. More and more businesses, government authorities, non-profit and other organizations happen to be integrating sociable and environmental objectives in the procurement method as a means to reduce their environmental results, leverage social benefits and foster a sustainable economic system for example green procurement has increased in United states (US, Canada and Mexico) in the last 36 months, as reported in the 2007 and 08 Eco , Markets studies, (Terra, 2007).

In Europe, membership in the Buy-It-Green Network has noticed its membership of government palliers more than double from 97 to 2001 and more than triple since 2001. This can be an indication of the expansion in green procurement within just Europe’s government sector. A 2005 study of 25 EU affiliate states was conducted through which government procurement agencies were assessed to determine the effectiveness with their green procurement programs. The research evaluated one particular, 099 tender documents and surveyed 865 procurers and located that while 67% identified themselves as green procurers, just 37% experienced green purchase programs set up (Terra, 2007).

In the period 1900-2004, the full of Africa was responsible for 2 . five per cent of total carbon dioxide exhausts whilst the united states accounted for twenty nine. 5%. In 2007, India’s per household carbon dioxide emissions were 1 . 4 metric tonnes per year against 19. 3 loads in the US. Although these spaces are narrowing, historic emissions are relevant because co2 remains inside the atmosphere to exert a greenhouse effect for many decades. All tests of weeknesses to weather change consent that the countries most really threatened will be those which take the least famous responsibility (Perry and Singh, 2002).

The Kyoto Protocol was agreed in 97 as a health supplement to the Platform Convention in Climate Transform and eventually ratified in Feb . 2005. Richer countries, generally known as “Annex 1 countries”, happen to be subject to officially binding objectives for cutting greenhouse gas emissions. In aggregate, these seek a 5% lowering of the 1990 level of global emissions ahead of the end of a first dedication period news. However , the calculation excludes emissions by aviation and shipping and there has been not any contribution from the US which usually refused to ratify the Protocol.

Furthermore, several countries, including Canada and Japan, have coldly disregarded all their Kyoto commitments (Terra, 2007). The weakest countries are now in an extremely hard position. They unanimously prefer continuity from the Kyoto Process as the sole currently available ways of binding the top polluting countries to their claims. But if they will refuse to endanger, they may be offender of falling apart the UN process which is the only intercontinental forum through which poor countries have an the same voice (Tokyo, Worrell and Galitsky, 2004).. 3 Green Procurement Practises in the Cement Industry Suppliers are required to give proof of all their commitment to environmental safeguard. This may take the form of claims on the actions they are taking to reduce their influence on environment, or perhaps alternatively to demonstrate that they are not really in breach of any statutory requirements relating to the planet. In addition , suppliers should consider the environmental impact of their products through the whole life cycle, from ‘cradle to grave’.

Today, environmental procurement is an increasingly crucial issue and decision-making application for small , medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries and financial systems in changeover. It can be disregarded by an enterprise simply at danger to it is long-term your survival (Coito, 2004). Every product, process and service posseses an impact after the environment. Employing life pattern thinking can assist our comprehension of the types and level of impacts and where they will occur. Existence cycle pondering can also provide information about how changes produced in a particular stage of the existence cycle impacts impacts upstream or downstream.

For example , the very best impacts of cement products occur in the extraction of raw materials and for others it is during their employ or disposal when larger environmental effects occur. Taking a life routine perspective can also illustrate the key benefits of collecting and recycling the labels materials instead of sending these to landfill, the recycled may replace the need to use virgin mobile materials (Detwiler and Golf, 1996). On a simple level, green purchase can push companies to locate office materials made from environmental products, or products made by companies which are committed to environmental stewardship.

Any office might also require minimal the labels on the items it purchases, look for goods moved with bio-diesel, look for manufacturing establishments which keep environmental accreditations, or indicate to potential distributors that it would choose products from companies which can be committed to lessening waste and benefiting the surroundings (Roth ainsi que al, 2002). Before a green procurement system can be executed, current purchase practices and policies must be reviewed and assessed.

A life circuit assessment of the environmental influences of products or services is essential and a couple of environmental conditions against which procurement and contract decisions are made must be developed. The results is a frequently reviewed green procurement plan that is integrated into other organisational plans, programs, and policies. A green procurement policy involves date-stamped goals and objectives, the assignment of obligations and accountability and a communication and promotion prepare (Roth ou al, 2002). 2 . The effect of Green Procurement around the Performance from the Organization The environmental impacts within the life circuit of products are a simple idea to understand. Fundamentally the diverse environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, normal water use, smog, non replenishable resource materials use, chemical emissions and waste sums are procedures along the existence of a item through a quantification methodology and accumulated. This quantification allows the results to visually represented delivering insight into procurers that seek to review different items (Nik et al, 2008).

Green purchase policies and programs may reduce spending and waste, increase source efficiency, and influence development, markets, rates, available companies and organisational behaviour. They will also assist countries in meeting multi-lateral requirements such as the Kyoto Protocol and Rotterdam Convention. Intercontinental Standards Enterprise and other systems have established suggestions for green procurement applications (Tokyo, Worrell and Galitsky, 2004). Environmental procurement reduces your costs.

A lot of costs in procurement will be visible: price, transport, etc . Others are “invisible”: failures due to inefficient use of assets, product legal responsibility, and the like. Environmental procurement will help reduce general costs to get the short, medium and long term by simply introducing a life-cycle perspective. Compliance with regulations , environmental procurement helps you satisfy regulations. Using the approach at an early stage can help your organization meet gradually stricter environmental regulations at a lower total cost.

Environmental procurement may help you keep pace with consumers’ preferences. The necessity for ecologically safe goods is being significantly felt in developing countries and change economies in developed countries (Worrell, Matn, Hendriks and Meida, 2001). In sum environmental purchase improves your overall competitiveness. Applying environmental procurement can improve your enterprise’s strategic position in the market, whether home or intercontinental. Green purchase steams coming from pollution avoidance principles and activities.

Also called green or environmental purchasing, green purchase compares value, technology, top quality and the environmental impact with the product, assistance or deal. Green purchase policies are applicable to all organisations, regardless of size. Green purchase programs might be as simple while procuring alternative energy or recycled office daily news or more involved such as placing environmental requirements for suppliers and technicians (Tokyo, Worrell and Galitsky, 2004). installment payments on your 5. Conceptual framework Physique 1 . you: Conceptual platform Dependent adjustable Independent parameters

Green purchase is a primary environmental matter that every purchase officer is needed to embrace in order to be able acquire goods and service which have been environmental friendly or procure from suppliers who happen to be environmental conscious about the effect of their products on the environmental sustainability. Admiration of green procurement by procurement officers helps in studying the environment under which the agencies operates and therefore buying many from suppliers who demonstrate concern intended for the environmental wellness.

The process of green procurement in the industry takes many different forms nevertheless the most important is usually how it really is done in the cement sector. The purchase officer in a cement sector must be able to buy products which can be acceptable to environment due to the nature from the cement market, the products bought should be able to reduce its impact on the environment. Green procurement provides several affects on the functionality of the purchase officers, most suitable option purchase merchandise which enhance environment durability to the people around them hence promoting a positive social cohabitation and reputation of the organization.

Green procurement directly influences the end merchandise i. elizabeth. the final item becomes competitive in the market. This kind of greatly enhances the overall performance of the purchase officers inside the organization. SECTION THREE: ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY 3. 0 Launch This phase presents the different steps that could facilitate the execution from the study to fulfill the aims of this analyze. These steps are the research design and style, population appealing, sampling and sampling approaches, data collection instruments and procedures and data evaluation. 3. 1 Research Style

The design of this study is dependent on survey research of bare cement industries in Kenya, which will be used due to the fact the design is useful in explaining the characteristics of a large population. The research design permits the use of numerous methods of data collection just like questionnaire, interview methods and observation courses. 3. two Target Populace The study will certainly target two cement companies that East African Portland Cement (EAPC) and Bamburi Cement (BC). The respondent will be sucked from the top administration and the procurement department coming from these companies as shown in stand 3. under. Table a few. 1: Concentrate on Population and Sample Size Target PopulationPopulation EstimateSample SizePercentage (%) Top Management (CEO or MD) from BC1 1100 Top rated Management ( CEO or MD) by EAPC1 1100 Procurement Administrator (BC)11100 Purchase Manager (EAPC) 11100 Procurement department (BC) 501020 Purchase department (EAPC) 501020 Total1042423 Source: Experts 2011 Relating to Table 3. you the target populace of the study includes the procurement section (100 officers) and the administration (4) hence the total concentrate on population can be 104 respondents.

Under the managing category the analysis will concentrate on the top administration of the companies – the CEO or MD (2) or the rep because they are those make decision on procedures regarding the procedures of the organization and the procurement managers or perhaps their deputies (2). several. 3 Sample and Test techniques A sample is a smaller group or sub-group obtained from the attainable population (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999). This kind of subgroup is definitely carefully chosen to be representative of the whole populace with the relevant characteristics.

The whole sample size for this study is 24 (n=24) since shown in table 3. 1 previously mentioned. The test size is convenient to handle because of time constrains. The sampling technique to be applied is simple randomly to pick respondent for the analysis from the concentrate on population. 3. 4 Info Collection Musical instruments These are your data collection devices to be employed in the process of data collection. They will be questionnaires and this will be used to collect data coming from all the participants. The questionnaires, will be used intended for the following reasons: a) can easily reach numerous respondents within a short ime, b) gives the respondents sufficient time to interact to the items, c) offers a feeling of security (confidentiality) to the respondents, and d) tends to be aim since zero bias resulting from the personal features (as in interview). There will be two sets of questionnaires which will have a number of sub-sections that will be sub-divided based on the research targets or questions except the first sub-section (section A) that is designed to capture the demographic features of the members like sexual intercourse, marital position, age, functioning experience, and level of education. three or more. Data Collection Procedure The authority to conduct the study in the agencies will be from the managing through a personal letter of request from the researchers and an introduction notification from the department to show these are real students through the University of Nairobi. The selected respondents will be given the questionnaires to fill. The researchers will then pick these people thereafter in an agreed time. The experts will make sure that they observe each of the ethical concern in the research and the respondents will be confident of privacy 3. 6th Data Examination

The accumulated data will be analyzed applying quantitative and qualitative methods. The qualitative data will probably be organized and after that coded appropriately using statistical package for social savoir (SPSS) and Excel. Detailed analysis just like frequencies, mean and proportions will be used to provide the data in form of tables and graphs. This will require coding equally open and closed concluded items in order to run simple descriptive studies to acquire reports upon data status. The study has three goals. The customer survey has been designed according to these objectives and it contains both open and closed concluded questions.

The close ended concerns have been rated using the likert scale in which the respondents will be required to pick the answers from the ones succumbed the set of questions while the open end will need the participants to give their own views depending on the questions asked. After that info collection will probably be in a qualitative form. This will be quantified by coding the data using SPSS to create tables, graphs, charts intended for interpretation. Your data analysis will be done in line with the objectives from the study via where a conclusion will be created for each goal. REFERENCES Alsop, P. A. and J. W. Content. 995. The Cement Herb Operations Guide, (First edition). Tradeship Publications Ltd., Dorking: UK. Blumenthal, M. 2004. Scrap Wheels Fuel U. S. Concrete Industry. Bare cement Americas This summer 2004. Boustead I. 2001. Who Has got the Credit? Affiliation of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe, Brussels. Coito, Farreneheit. 2004 (draft). Industrial Example: The Concrete Industry. Prepared by KEMA Xenergy with assistance from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. Oakland, Calif. Detwiler, L. J., and P. D. Tennis. 1996. The Use of Limestone in Portland cement: A State-of-the- Artwork Review. Skokie, Ill: Portland cements Association.

Goh, Eng Ann, Zailani, Suhaiza, , Wahid, Nabsiah Abd. (2006). A study within the impact of environmental management system (EMS) documentation towards firms’ performance in Malaysia. Management of Environmental Quality: A worldwide Journal. Kaantee, U., Zevenhoven, R., Backman, R. , Hupa, M.. (2002). Bare cement manufacturing applying alternative fuels and the advantages of process modeling. Presented at R’2002 Recovery, Recycling, Re-integration, Geneva. Kitazawa, S. , Sarkis, T.. (2000). The partnership between INTERNATIONALE ORGANISATION F�R STANDARDISIERUNG 14001 and continuous supply reduction programs. International Log of Procedures and Production Management, 20(2), 225-248.

Kvist, S., Pongracz, E. , Keiski, 3rd there�s r. L.. (2005), ISO 14001 and waste materials minimization in metallurgy sector. Proceedings with the RESOPT concluding seminar “Waste minimization and utilisation in Oulu place: Drivers and constraints, Oulu: Oulu School Press. Matn Perry , Sanjeev Singh. (2001). Business environmental responsibility: The potential and limits of voluntary pursuits. Technology, Organization and Contemporary society Program Paper Number 3, April 2001. Geneva. Mugenda an Mugenda, A. G (1999) Study Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches: Nairobi: Acts Press Nik Ramli Nik Abdul Rashid, Nabsiah Abdul Wahid , Norizan Mat Saad. 2008). Growing the range of education for environmentally friendly development between employees of organizations mixed up in implementation in the environmental management. The 12th UNESCO-Asia-Pacific Plan of Educational Innovation intended for Development (APEID). Bangkok. Perry, M. , Singh, T.. (2002), Corporate environmental responsibility In: Utting, P. (Ed. ). The greening of business in developing countries: Rhetoric, actuality, and potential customers. London: Zed Press, 97-131. Porter, Meters. E. , van der Linde, C.. (1995). Green and competitive: Ending the stalemate. Harvard Business Review, 73(5), 120-129 Portland cements Association (PCA). 997. Mixed Cement Potential Study. Skokie, Ill.: Portland cements Connection. Roth, K., F. Goldstein, and T. Kleinman. 2002. Energy Ingestion by Office and Telecommunications Equipment in Commercial Buildings—Volume I: Strength Consumption Baseline. Washington, D. C. Tokyo. Worrell, At the., and C. Galitsky. 2005. Energy Effectiveness Improvement and Cost Keeping Opportunities to get Cement Producing: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers. Berkeley, A bunch of states: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. United States Census. 2005d. 2002 Economic Census, Industry Series Reports: Semiconductor and Related Device Manufacturing.

Washington, D. C.: U. S. Census. Williams Elizabeth. 2000. Global Production Organizations and Sustainability: The Case of High-Purity Silicon and its Applications in Information Technology and Alternative energy. United Nations College or university, APPENDICES Appendix I: Introduction Letter The primary Executive Officer/ Managing Overseer East Photography equipment Portland Cement/ Bamburi Cement P. U Box Athi River Special Sir/Madam, LSO ARE: A STUDY ON THE EFFECTS GREEN PURCHASE IN THE BARE CEMENT MANUFACTURING SECTOR IN KENYA. As mentioned above our company is conducting because survey for the impact of green procurement in the cement industries in Kenya.

Your business has been targeted for the research therefore , our company is kindly requesting you to allow us get the relevant info. The participants will be the CEO/MD or his representative while others will be picked out from the procurement department. This kind of study has been carried out being a requirement in partial satisfaction of the merit of a degree in management research project , Bachelors of Commerce, University of Nairobi. A duplicate of this exploration will be published to you upon request. The positive response will be very appreciated. Saying thanks to you before hand. Yours Faithfully, …………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………, Appendix II: Research Questionnaire We are learners from the School of Nairobi. As part of the course work in our undergraduate program, our company is carrying out a study on the effect of green procurement in the cement industry in Kenya. We generously request that you just provide data as needed by the customer survey in the examine. Any information you will provide will probably be kept private and will be employed only for the analysis and the benefits then utilized to the interested parties soon after. Part A: Demographic Details

Please put a tick (v) in the brackets next to the right response 1 ) Indicate your company a) East African Portland Cement [ ] b) Bamburi Concrete [ ] 2 . Suggest your gender a)Male[ ] b)Female[ ] 3. Your Department, ……………………………………………………,. 4. What is the job status? , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , Part B: 1 . Appreciation of Green Procurement Utilize likert scale to answer the questions under. 1 – strongly agree (SA), a couple of – agree (A), three or more – strongly disagree (SD), 4 – disagree (D), 5 – not sure (NS).

State the extent that you believe the following assertions based on the level of gratitude of green procurement inside your organization. ActivitySAASDDNS It is important to think twice before buying supplies which have been environmentally unsustainable Environmental purchase means methodically building environmental considerations into the day-to-day purchase decision-making and operations Its objective is usually to help you procure the most suitable and “environmentally more effective product” that meets the enterprise’s demands.

I prefer the ISO criteria which needs companies to include environmental concerns into their purchase procedures It involves guaranteeing the improvement in the suppliers’ environmental performance Due to green purchase increasing number of products that are harmful to the planet (especially chemicals) have been banned by intercontinental conventions and treaties Harmful products and technology, risks for the health in the environment associated with the population As a result of pressure coming from consumers, various countries include started to submit restrictions in importing particular consumer items

Any other, explain, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,.. To what level do you enjoy green procurement as part of your obligations in the organization. , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,. 2 . Just how Green Purchase is performed in the Business Please set a tick (v) inside the brackets up coming to the proper response a)Do you practice green purchase? Yes [ ] Not any [ ] b)If yes how do you get it done? Explain, ……………………………………………….. , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,. 3. Use the likert scale to reply to the concerns below. you – firmly agree (SA), 2 – agree (A), 3 – strongly differ (SD), some – argue (D), a few – unsure (NS).

State the degree to which you agree with this statements depending on the factors during green procurement ConsiderationsSAADSDNS Procurement representatives have to ask questions including whether a product is based on assets from eco sensitive bases (including regions with sensitive ecosystems, unusual woods or endangered animals). If a merchandise has a percentage of recycled materials rather than relying on virgin mobile materials. In case the production procedure involves if you are an00 of wastage.

Companies should certainly look for goods with decreased wastage levels achieved through use of appropriate materials or perhaps better systems. The cycle approach looks for solutions that reduce bad harmful affects and costs to the environment. This can suggest avoiding constrained or prohibited substances, nondegradable materials and packaging at risk of leakages in transit. A great analysis of purchased products can show the particular critical needs are intended for the venture to operate international. Any other, make sure you explain ……………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4. Impact of Green Purchase on the Organization Use the likert scale to resolve the questions below. you – firmly agree (SA), 2 – agree (A), 3 – strongly differ (SD), four – don’t agree (D), your five – not sure (NS). State the level to which you agree with this statements depending on the impact of green purchase ImpactSAASDDNS Consider environmental issues in procurement to reduce total costs Makes your organization more competitive.

Building environmental concerns into procurement contributes to your costs, force you to buy products of inferior quality and cost you effort and time Going green will make your goods more attractive to big buyers and buyers reduce waste disposal and operating costs. Assist you to comply with progressively stringent environmental regulations. Environmental procurement can assist you keep pace with customers’ preferences Applying environmental procurement can transform your life enterprise’s ideal position available in the market, whether home-based or worldwide.

It motivates continuous improvement in product or service, Promotes environmentally friendly development inside the organization Virtually any others, please explain, ………………………………………………………………, ……………………………………………………………………………………………….,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, I want to thank your assistance END Appendix III: Budget

ItemsAmount (Ksh. ) 1 ) Stationary (Photocopying papers and writing materials) 15, 000 2 . Phone calls 5, 000 3. Travel and activity 5, 000 4. Joining and Copying 15, 500 Total 40, 000 Appendix IV: Time Schedule Period (Month/Activity)Jan 2011 Feb 2011 Mar 2011 Topic search and acceptance and material collection Pre-visiting the research place. Proposal producing and security Data collection and evaluation. Report producing and protection Final creating and submitter of the analysis paper

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Topic: Environmentally friendly,

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Published: 01.28.20

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