www. studyguide. pk COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMS GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level and GCE Advanced Level MARK STRUCTURE for the May/June 2008 question newspaper 9697 BACKGROUND 9697/01 Daily news 1, optimum raw mark 100 This kind of mark system is released as an aid to teachers and individuals, to indicate the needs of the assessment.
It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award represents. It does not indicate the details with the discussions that took place at an Examiners’ getting together with before marking began.
Almost all Examiners are instructed that alternative right answers and unexpected approaches in candidates’ scripts should be given marks that fairly reveal the relevant expertise and abilities demonstrated. Tag schemes should be read in conjunction with the question documents and the survey on the examination. ¢ CIE will not access discussions or correspondence in connection with these indicate schemes. CIE is posting the draw schemes for the May/June 2008 query papers for the majority of IGCSE, GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses plus some Ordinary Level syllabuses. www. xtremepapers. net www. studyguide. pk Webpage 2
Draw Scheme GCE A/AS LEVEL ” May/June 2008 Syllabus 9697 Conventional paper 01 COMMON MARK RINGS FOR ESSAY QUESTIONS Examiners will evaluate which Standard of Response greatest reflects almost all of the answer. A remedy will not be required to demonstrate each of the descriptions in a particular Level to be eligible for a Draw Band. In bands of three or 5 marks, examiners will normally award the middle mark/one from the middle signifies, moderating up or down according to the particular qualities with the answer. In bands of 2 marks, examiners should prize the lower draw if an response just should get the group and the higher mark in the event the answer plainly deserves the band.
Strap 1 Marks 21″25 Amounts of Response The approach will be consistently conditional or informative rather than detailed or narrative. Essays will probably be fully relevant. The disagreement will be methodized coherently and supported by extremely appropriate informative material and ideas. The writing will probably be accurate. A bit lower on the band, there may be a lot of weaker parts but the total quality will show that the prospect is in control over the argument. The best answers must be honored 25 signifies. 2 18″20 Essays will be focused evidently on the requirements of the question but you will see some unevenness.
The strategy will be mostly analytical or explanatory instead of descriptive or perhaps narrative. The answer will be generally relevant. A lot of the argument will probably be structured comprehensibly and supported by largely accurate factual materials. The impression will be which a good stable answer has been provided. 3 16″17 Essays will echo a clear knowledge of the question and a fair try to provide an debate and truthful knowledge to answer it. The approach will contain examination or justification but there can be some heavily descriptive or perhaps narrative passages. The answer will be largely relevant.
Essays will achieve a authentic argument yet may absence balance and depth in factual know-how. Most of the solution will be organised satisfactorily but some parts may well lack total coherence. some 14″15 Documents will indicate attempts to dispute relevantly even though often withought a shadow of doubt. The procedure will depend even more on a lot of heavily descriptive or story passages than on evaluation or reason, which may be restricted to introductions and conclusions. Truthful material, at times very full, will be used to impart details or identify events rather than to address straight the requirements from the question.
The structure with the argument could be organised better. 5 11″13 Essays will offer some suitable elements nevertheless there will be small attempt generally to hyperlink factual materials to the requirements of the issue. The way will lack analysis as well as the quality with the description or perhaps narrative, although sufficiently correct and highly relevant to the topic in the event that not this question, will never be linked efficiently to the disagreement. The framework will show disadvantages and the take care of topics within the answer will be unbalanced. 6 8-10 Documents will not be properly focused on certain requirements of the issue.
There may be a large number of unsupported assertions and commentaries that shortage sufficient truthful support. The argument may be of limited relevance for the topic and there may be misunderstandings about the implications of the question. 7 0-7 Works will be characterised by significant irrelevance or perhaps arguments which often not continue to make significant points. The answers may be largely fragmentary and incoherent. Marks in the bottom of this Group will be provided very rarely mainly because even the the majority of wayward and fragmentary answers usually produce at least a few valid points. UCLES 2008 www. xtremepapers. net www. studyguide. t Page several Mark System GCE A/AS LEVEL ” May/June 2008 Syllabus 9697 Paper 01 Section A: The Origins of Community War I actually, 1870″1914 Source-Based Question: Examination and Evaluation 1 ‘Serbia was most to blame for the Sarajevo Catastrophe. ‘ Employ Sources A”E to show how long the evidence confirms this declaration. CONTENT EVALUATION [L2″3] ANALYSIS [L4″5] A very good antiAustrian, antiFranz Ferdinand assertion by a member of a terrorist group. Y-Threats expressed to Austria plus the Archduke N Official notice from a German Delegate to the Chef with his handwritten notes. Y-The Ambassador advised Austria to consider a oderate attitude and steer clear of an extreme response. N-William 2 realised the fact that situation was very serious and fully supported Austria. He did not urge moderation. CROSSREFERENCE TO VARIOUS OTHER PASSAGES Y-Source C wants Y-Source may be that there were accepted not simply widespread antias the personal Austrian feeling in view of the copy writer but as the opinion of Serbia. N-Contradicted by additional members of Source Deb and the Dark-colored Hand. especially Source Elizabeth, N-Source originates from a member of your the views of established Serbian thoughts and opinions small group. Though particularly which can be anxious to succeed in a settlement iolent, it was avoid Austria. associated with general Serbian opinion. Y-The letter can be authentic and probably displays accurately the views in the Ambassador. Y-The Kaiser’s handwritten notes are authentic and reflect his reaction to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Y-Although the freelance writers of B disagree regarding Austria’s reactions, taken jointly they symbolize different German born opinions. Y-Agrees with Resource A the fact that Austrians observe danger in Serbia. Origin C confirms that Serbian public thoughts and opinions is very generally anti-Austrian. N-Source D shows the cautious and anxious sights of the People from france nd English governments. There is also a reference to the fears of the Serbian authorities. UCLES 2008 www. xtremepapers. net OTHER (e. g. Contextual knowledge) Y- Serbia was your leading express in the Balkans that symbolized a serious nationalist threat for the diverse Austrian Empire. It may have done more to reduce violent teams. N-The Serbian government had not been responsible for the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. This kind of act was condemned globally but Luxembourg used it because an excuse for this against Serbia. It did not enter talks seriously. Y-By 1914, Luxembourg was eeply suspicious of Serbia as the leader of hostile new self-employed states, intimidating the further more break-up of its Empire. Y-Serbia did not act sufficiently to suppress anti-Austrian terrorist groups. N-The Kaiser’s notes reflect his complete support for Luxembourg, e. g. the Blank Cheque, great tendency to look at hasty and immoderate behaviour. N-The conditions that Luxembourg made in Serbia were probably also humiliating to become acceptable. www. studyguide. pk Page four Mark Scheme GCE A/AS LEVEL ” May/June 08 Syllabus 9697 Paper 01 C Notice of an Austrian diplomat towards the Austrian International
Minister Y-Anti-Austrian feeling was widespread in Serbia. Every social and political organizations were included. There was even the (ludicrous) declare that Austria got caused the assassination. Y-The diplomat is at Belgrade if he wrote the letter, he previously first-hand knowledge. N-He neglects the reasons to get Serbian violence to Luxembourg. Y-Agrees with Source A, which is proof of terrorist bitterness to Luxembourg. Agrees with the Kaiser in Source M that Austria had a justified grievance against Serbia. N-Disagrees with Deb, the moderate views of other significant states who have do not condemn Serbia. Disagrees ith Source E, which can be an offer by Serbian government to settle variations. Y-Anti-Austrian feeling in Serbia had been building up for a long time. The was the Balkans Wars. Luxembourg felt by itself on the shielding. N-Serbia was a smaller nation and did not represent a significant threat, even to a weak Austria. D Letter through the French Legate to his Foreign Minister. N-Fears of an extreme Austrian reaction are shared by the governments of France, The uk and Serbia. Austria is seen as the major danger to serenity. Y-The page probably presents accurately the discussions through which he Delegate was involved. N-Source will not appreciate the reasons why Austria was taking a solid line against Serbia. Y-Source B partially agrees inasmuch as the German Ambassador dissuaded the Austrians coming from taking intense measures. Resource E agrees as the offer with the Serbian govt to resolve differences with Luxembourg. N-Source C strongly disagrees. Source A can also be found to argue because it shows the continuous hostility of the antiAustrian terrorist group. Y-France and Britain wished to defuse the Sarajevo crisis. The Serbian govt was willing to make hommage. N-The British overnment would not make it is exact frame of mind sufficiently very clear. E Communication from a Serbian Delegate to his Prime Minister. N-The Serbian government condemns the assassination of Franz Ferdinand and wishes to excercise good relations with Luxembourg. Y-The message is reliable because it is extremely probably real. N-The Serbian government had not previously carried out all conceivable to curb violent anti-Austrian groups. Y-Source D agrees directly and indirectly. Source B partly agrees (the words from the German Ambassador). N-Source A can be delivered to disagree as can the Kaiser’s notes in Source B.
Source C strongly disagrees: opinion in Serbia is incredibly anti-Austrian. Y-The Serbian authorities responded favorably to Austrian demands following your Sarajevo killing. N-The Serbian government got tolerated the presence of some severe antiAustrian teams. UCLES 2008 www. xtremepapers. net www. studyguide. pk Site 5 Indicate Scheme GCE A/AS LEVEL ” May/June 2008 Syllabus 9697 Daily news 01 Marking Notes [Note: every papers have to be marked making use of the generic tagging bands pertaining to source-based and essay questions. ) you Source-Based Query L1 PRODUCES ABOUT THE HYPOTHESIS, ZERO USE OF SOURCES [1″5]
These kinds of answers come up with Sarajevo or maybe generally regarding 1914 but will ignore the query, i. electronic. they will not utilize the sources since information/evidence to evaluate the offered hypothesis. For example , they will not go over ‘Serbia was most the reason for the Sarajevo Crisis’ but actually will describe occasions very generally. Include in this kind of level answers which use details taken from the sources yet only in providing a brief summary of sights expressed by the writers, instead of for testing the ideas. Alternatively, the sources could possibly be ignored in a general composition answer. L2 USES INFORMATION TAKEN FROM THE SOURCES TO CHALLENGE OR SUPPORT THE HYPOTHESIS 6″8] These answers utilize sources because information instead of as data, i. at the. sources are being used at face value just with no evaluation/interpretation in context. For example , ‘Austria exaggerated the crisis due to the killing of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The German born Ambassador in Source W does not think that the Austrian government should take precipitate procedures against Serbia, preferring a more considered procedure. Source M states the fact that British Foreign Minister distributed this view and believed that the Austrian government ought to be reasonable in the demands about Serbia.
Supply E gives the view from the Serbian federal government, in which it promised not to allow extremism against Austria in its areas. Those turned out of being active in the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand can be punished. The Serbian authorities wished for good relations with Austria. ‘ Or alternatively, ‘Austria did not exaggerate the crisis due to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Source A portrays the extreme opinions of any member of a terrorist group even following the assassination. They represented an effective threat to Austria.
In Source B, the Chef supported Luxembourg and would not agree that Austria ought to be advised to become cautious. In Source C, the Austrian diplomat details widespread extreme anti-Austrian sense in Serbia after the assassination. ‘ L3 USES DETAILS TAKEN FROM OPTIONS TO CONCERN AND SUPPORT THE HYPOTHESIS. [9″13] These types of answers know that testing the hypothesis entails both attempting to confirm and disconfirm it. However , sources are used only at face value. For instance , ‘There is definitely evidence pertaining to and against the claim that Serbia was the majority of to blame for the Sarajevo Problems.
Source A supports the claim because it is evidence of the opinions of a part of a terrorist group that was totally anti-Austrian and completely important of the visit to Sarajevo of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Having been not only articulating his very own opinion. This is certainly supported in Source B by the opinions of Kaiser William 2 and in Supply C, the description of anti-Austrian feeling in Serbia. On the other hand, what he claims is contradicted by other Sources. Source C records the fears of a Serbian Minister plenipotentiary in The united kingdom that Austria would overreact whilst Greyish, the Uk Foreign Ressortchef (umgangssprachlich), had asked the Austrian government to pursue oderate policies. Source E demonstrates that the Serbian government was willing to discipline those who were responsible for the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and sought great relations with Austria. ‘ UCLES 2008 www. xtremepapers. net www. studyguide. pk Page 6 Draw Scheme GCE A/AS LEVEL ” May/June 2008 L4 BY INTERPRETING/EVALUATING SOURCES OBSTACLE OR SUPPORT THE SPECULATION. IN CIRCUMSTANCE, Syllabus 9697 FINDS Newspaper 01 DATA TO [14″16] These answers are capable of using resources as facts, i. electronic. demonstrating their particular utility in testing the hypothesis, simply by interpreting all of them in their historical context, my spouse and i.. not simply acknowledging them for face benefit. For example , ‘It is more exact that Luxembourg exaggerated the crisis caused by the murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Source A is violently anti-Austrian and regards the Archduke being a tyrant. It was particularly unpleasant to issue such a statement soon after the assassination in the Archduke Franz Ferdinand fantastic wife. Nevertheless , the Dark Hand group was a little minority but not necessarily associated with the larger Serbian judgment. The Kaiser’s support of stern Austrian action in Source N is common of his volatile inclinations.
It is not dependable as evidence of Austria’s reaction. Source C is a lengthy account of anti-Austrian sense in Serbia but is not necessarily reliable even though it is authored by a diplomat. It is contradicted by the opinions of the Serbian Ambassador in Source Deb, who claims that Luxembourg had pursued anti-Serbian procedures for a long time, and even more by the Serbian Ambassador in Source E. There might have been strong anti-Austrian feeling in Serbia, because Source C reports, although Source Electronic is solid evidence of the wish from the Serbian govt not to provoke Austria.
Supply D comes with the sights of different governments. Both the French and British governments believe that the Austrian authorities should stay calm. There were a long great ill sense between Luxembourg and the Balkan states, especially in Serbia. The assassination of the leading person in the Austrian royal friends and family (the Emperor’s heir) was particularly remarkable but Luxembourg shared the responsibility for the indegent relations between these countries. ‘ L5 BY INTERPRETING AND ASSESSING SOURCES IN CONTEXT, LOCATES EVIDENCE TO CHALLENGE AND SUPPORT THE HYPOTHESIS. 17″21] These kinds of answers understand that testing the hypothesis requires attempting both equally to confirm and disconfirm the hypothesis, and they are capable of using sources as data to do this (i. e. equally confirmation and disconfirmation are done at this level). For example , (L4 plus) ‘, However , the sources can even be interpreted to exhibit that Serbia was many to blame for the Sarajevo Turmoil. Source A comes from a member of a terrorist group that had performed the murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and its programme was widely supported in Serbia.
There is not any sign the fact that Black Side would end its actions and, although it had few members, the danger that they represented had recently been proved by way of a role in the assassination. Supply B comes with the provocative views of the Kaiser but the German Ambassador’s letter will not criticise the Austrians to get exaggerating the crisis, this individual only desires the Austrians to be modest in their response. Source C is good evidence of the anti-Austrian comments in Serbia. The diplomat was accurate in his perception that this kind of feelings had been very popular in Serbia.
It is also the case that Serbia, like different Balkan declares, believed that Austria was obviously a declining electric power. Austria needed to take good action to counter this opinion. Much more insulting was your allegation that Austria acquired caused the assassination. ‘ UCLES 2008 www. xtremepapers. net www. studyguide. pk Web page 7 Indicate Scheme GCE A/AS LEVEL ” May/June 2008 Syllabus 9697 Daily news 01 L6 AS L5, PLUS BOTH (a) CLARIFY WHY FACTS TO CHALLENGE/SUPPORT IS BETTER/ PREFERRED, OR PERHAPS (b) RECONCILES/EXPLAINS PROBLEMS INSIDE THE EVIDENCE SHOWING THAT NEITHER CHALLENGE NOR SUPPORT IS TO BE PREFERRED. [22″25]
For (a), the discussion must be which the evidence intended for challenging or supporting what he claims is more validated. This must involve a comparative judgement, i. electronic. not just how come some facts is better, but why a lot of evidence is worse. For instance , ‘Although there exists evidence in the Sources both equally to challenge and support the claim that Serbia was most the reason for the Sarajevo Crisis, the greater convincing circumstance contradicts the claim. The best evidence is usually from the Options that demonstrate how restless the Serbian government was going to defuse the case. These are Supply D and especially Source Elizabeth.
Although Resource D is a letter from your Ambassador of the country that was not friendly towards Luxembourg, it is likely an accurate consideration of the conversations that having been involved in. It could be supported by very own knowledge that the Serbian federal government was fearful of Luxembourg and that the English government, represented by Greyish, called for small amounts. Source At the is very almost certainly an accurate bank account of a Serbian government’s meaning to Austria and its would like to avoid serious action. Resource A must not be given very much weight because justification to get harsh policies by Luxembourg. The members of the Black Hand group were handful of.
They were a danger to Luxembourg but this did not justify action against Serbia overall. The written by hand notes of William II in Resource B invariably is an exaggerated response in support of Austria. They compare with the more sensible frame of mind of the A language like german Ambassador in this extract. Even though Source C is probably a generally exact account of anti-Austrian feeling in Serbia, it neglects Austria’s responsibility for awful relations involving the states. ‘ For (b) include every L5 answers which use the evidence to modify the hypothesis (rather than simply seeking to support/contradict) in order to improve it.
For example , ‘An alternative reason is that, although Austria did not exaggerate the horror with the assassination in the short term, it was not really justified in using it while the reason for a significant war against Serbia that was then to involve all of the major countries in Europe. The assassination did not simply horrify Luxembourg but all major European countries, the members from the Triple Entente as well as the ones from the Triple Alliance. Luxembourg used the assassination to justify the complete suppression of Serbia, which in turn had been the enemy for years. Source C is the only extract that refers to long lasting issues and it is very one-sided.
However , the crisis in Sarajevo can simply be understood when we to understand long term issues, including the animosity between the Austrian Empire plus the more recently impartial Balkan declares and Austria’s membership from the Triple Alliance, with its rivalry to the significant states inside the Triple Ensemble. The Serbian government could have done even more to control anti-Austrian terrorist groups but it really did not have direct responsibility for the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand by Sarajevo and tried really to defuse the situation. ‘ UCLES 2008 www. xtremepapers. net www. studyguide. pk Site 8
Mark Scheme GCE A/AS LEVEL ” May/June 2008 Syllabus 9697 Newspaper 01 Section B Article Questions a couple of How far would Napoleon Bonaparte ensure freedom and equal rights in his domestic government of France? The main element issue is the nature of Napoleon’s govt of England. The question obviously refers to domestic issues, discussion posts of foreign policy or maybe the impact of Napoleon’s regulation on various other countries are not relevant unless of course they are a short part of introductions or results. One would expect answers in Bands one particular (21″25) and 2 (18″20) to consider arguments to get and against Napoleon’s support for liberty and equality.
However , examiners should not need an equal stability. The balance is going to reflect the argument. For instance , it might deny ‘liberal’ actions as of slight importance. Answers in other Artists might fat for a spat that accepts or rejects ‘liberty and equality, ‘ without considering the choice at all. It will be relevant to discuss the Code Napoleon (1804), an attempt to unify the diverse laws of England. Its verification of equal rights before the rules and the end of advantage, and faith based toleration would point towards Napoleon’s liberalism. Careers had been open to skill.
However , interactions of personnel were restricted and women received fewer rights than guys. Napoleon held a tight hang on power through his autocratic rule. Representatives were nominated and the Empire ensured Napoleon’s personal secret. Opposition was suppressed and reference may be made to the effort of Fouche as Minister of Police. Equality was limited by the restriction of promotion to Napoleon’s proponents. 3 So why did industrialisation have crucial political results on Europe during the nineteenth century? (you actually should make reference to developments in at least two of the subsequent countries: Great britain, France and Germany in the answer. The main element issue is the link between industrialisation and personal developments. Candidates are asked to refer to at least two countries. This should assist to avoid obscure responses. However , examiners will not expect any balance between the two or three countries and the question does not specify how much time should be directed at particular good examples. It will not be required to describe the introduction of the Industrial Wave per se but to link improvements to the essential issue. It might be argued the fact that Industrial Trend encouraged the growth of a new middle school.
Its economic wealth allowed it to learn a more essential political position. Reference may be made to the Reform Serves (1832 and 1867) in Britain and also to political advancements in France from 1848. The position of the urban operating class, even though it lacked economic power, was enhanced by its focus in large towns. Little by little political credits had to be designed to them, partially to avoid unrest. Reference may be made to the Reform Works (1867 and 1884), having its supplements such as the Secret Ballot Act, in Britain and to political incidents in Portugal.
Political credits were also made to the working category in Australia by the end in the nineteenth hundred years. It will be relevant to discuss cultural reform, by way of example in education and housing, which came to exist largely because of the political demands from the working class. High credit should be given once candidates explain the link between industrialisation and new personal ideas just like Socialism and Marxism. UCLES 08 www. xtremepapers. net www. studyguide. pk Page on the lookout for 4 Draw Scheme GCE A/AS LEVEL ” May/June 2008 Syllabus 9697 Conventional paper 01
Why was Bismarck more successful than the revolutionaries of 1848″49 in unifying Indonesia? The key issue is the comparison between Bismarck’s success as well as the failure from the German revolutionaries in 1848″49. Examiners ought to expect a reasonable balance. 60: 40 in either case can advantage any tag but 75: 30 would normally result in the award of 1 Band lower than would normally be given. However , as in most answers, the entire quality in the argument would be the most important qualifying criterion. An excellent exploration of Bismarck within an otherwise unbalanced answer may well still be well worth a high mark.
Band 5 (11″13) will need a basic understanding of either Bismarck or the 1848″49 revolutions. Problem asks ‘Why? ‘ plus the most effective answers will be conditional but answers that contain continuous analyses of Bismarck and 1848″49 must not be undervalued. Bismarck was helped by Prussia’s strong armed service power although the earlier revolutionaries had been militarily weak. Having been supported by Bill I while Frederick Bill IV spurned the possibility of a German top. However , Frederick William 4 did bring in a comparatively tolerante constitution that became attracting other German born states.
Prussia’s economy was strong, individuals can go over the importance of the Zollverein. Bismarck was more skilful in handling the other German states. He was more successful in dealing with other countries through his diplomacy and use of warfare. Candidates can illustrate this through the Danish War (1864), the Austro-Prussian War (1866) and the Franco-Prussian War (1870). Meanwhile, Luxembourg was a less strong rival by the 1860s and fewer able to prevent German unification. 5 Clarify the problems Europe faced to promote imperial development during the later nineteenth hundred years.
The key issue is the challenges faced by simply European countries when they engaged in real enterprises. Examiners will look for some examples, equally from European countries and international. However , the range of conceivable overseas cases is vast and examiners will be genuine in their objectives. For example , some very good quarrels might be supported by examples coming from a limited selection of regions. There was problems in communication. Governments were at times involved in businesses because of the activities of local officials, for example Britain and Cecil Rhodes. Sometimes diverse policies were favoured.
For instance , Bismarck was less enthusiastic than German born public thoughts and opinions. In spite of desires for profits, imperial expansion could be expensive. Imperialism resulted in worries between countries and put into military costs because larger and more expensive navies had been needed. There were the danger of war and reference may be made to a few crises such as Britain and France’s engagement at Fashoda (1898). Some candidates might slant problem to use ‘problems’ as a unit to explain the causes of imperialism, one example is economic benefit or strategic interests.
This will likely be valid as long as the hyperlink is made among causes and problems. UCLES 2008 www. xtremepapers. net www. studyguide. pk Page 15 6 Tag Scheme GCE A/AS LEVEL ” May/June 2008 Syllabus 9697 Conventional paper 01 How come was the 1st World Conflict so important in the downfall of the Romanov regime and the success of the Bolsheviks? The key issue is the link between your First Universe War as well as the events of 1917. Candidates might take either of two approaches. 1914″17 might be seen as the culmination of a long decline of tsarist federal government, with significantly less attention staying given to the wartime period.
Alternatively, answers might come from 1914. Either approach is possible but the attraction in the initial will be to spend too long for the pre-war period. In particular, the Bolsheviks are not in a good position in 1914 and answers in Band 1 (21″25) and Band 2 (18″20) will need to show a sound knowledge of the Bolshevik victory at the conclusion of 1917. Answers that deal just with the March or the Oct Revolutions will dsicover it difficult to get beyond Band a few (16″17). The war discredited Nicholas II’s regime. The ussr suffered large defeats with massive casualties.
The causing inflation wrecked an economy that had been bettering by 1914 but was still too fragile to support the stresses of the turmoil. Food became short. The Tsar’s decision to take personal command showed his lack of ability as a army leader just about all discredited him politically. Spain was left to the rule of Tsarina Alexandra and Rasputin. The results was the February Revolution. In spite of their afterwards propaganda, Lenin and the Bolsheviks were not essential in this growing. Kerensky and the Provisional Federal government failed to establish a stable government.
They attempted to deal with grievances about meals and area but ineffectively. The many personal groups wasn’t able to be maintained. The warfare continued unsuccessfully and the ensuing grievances elevated. Although Lenin and the Bolsheviks were examined in the September Days, Kornilov’s attempted coup discredited Kerensky. The October Revolution revealed the ability of Lenin and the Bolsheviks, although a group, to take decisive action. Lenin’s promise of major reforms and coupure such as ‘All power to the soviets’ had an enthusiastic response. Lenin shortly abandoned his offer of your coalition federal government to install the Bolsheviks strongly in electric power. ‘The unpopularity of the Versailles settlement was the most important reasons why Hitler obtained power in 1933. ‘ How far will you agree with this kind of judgement? The main element issue is the reasons why Hitler came to electricity in 1933. Candidates may well continue the explanation throughout 1933 by describing the series of occasions from his appointment as Chancellor towards the introduction in the Enabling Action. However , answers that end with the Chancellor’s appointment can easily merit any kind of mark. The question asks applicants to consider particularly the need for the Versailles settlement.
This kind of dismantled the German armed service. Colonies were surrendered. There have been territorial credits in The european countries, especially the return of Alsace-Lorraine to England and the lack of areas inside the east to Poland. Individuals that were considered to be German had been living in various other countries. Reparations had to be paid. Unification with Austria was forbidden. The War Remorse clause credited blame for the First Community War to Germany. Hate of the settlement, the ‘stab in the back’ and the ‘November Criminals’ united Germans. This may form the foundation a good response.
However , answers in Group 1 (21″25) and Music group 2 (18″20) can be expected to look further and compare Versailles as a cause with other elements. Weimar Australia did not establish a stable democracy. Proportional representation allowed small parties to exert excessive politician influence. Changes of presidency were recurrent. Extreme proper and left-wing parties triggered tensions. Nevertheless , high credit rating should be provided to candidates who have understand the limited appeal of the Nazis in the 1920s. The Munich Proclamation (1923) was put down easily. The military and the Junkers/traditionally strong right-wing social classes continued to exert influence.
Nevertheless, Weimar seemed to have been completely more successful in the 1920s. It alleviated the worst economic effects of the war, came to agreements regarding the repayment of reparations and was accepted like a leading member of the Little league of Nations. The death of Stresemann was a blow this means you will be contended that the Stock market Crash (1929) that forced the Weimar Republic off-course. Hitler him self was a highly effective leader. He built up the Nazis through organisation and propaganda to be the second major party in the 1930 selection and the major in 1932 ” however they actually dropped support in a later selection that year.
He stored his nerve when other folks, such as vonseiten Papen, thought that all they could control him, refusing to simply accept any business office except Chancellor. UCLES 2008 www. xtremepapers. net www. studyguide. pk Page 11 8 Mark Structure GCE A/AS LEVEL ” May/June 2008 Syllabus 9697 Paper 01 How distinct were Stalin’s policies in governing The ussr to 1939 from those of Nicholas II? The key concern is the comparison between Stalin and Nicholas II. Examiners can look for a balanced strategy. 60: forty either way can merit any kind of mark although 70: 30 would normally lead to being one Band lower than might otherwise receive.
However , as with all answers, the overall quality of the disagreement will be the most important criterion. A great discussion of either Stalin or Nicholas 2 in an in any other case unbalanced response might be worth a higher mark. Prospects are free to argue that the commonalities were more important than the distinctions: they were equally autocrats, that they suppressed politics opposition, their very own secret law enforcement operated beyond the law, they represented a private cult of presidency. However , it might be claimed that Stalin’s secret was more brutal. The millions of casualties went far beyond the numbers who had been prosecuted/persecuted simply by Nicholas II.
Their ideologies were several. Stalin said, justifiably or perhaps not, that his program was depending on Marxism. Nicholas II dominated by keen right. Some candidates might mention their various attitudes to religion plus the Church yet this is not necessary for any mark. Their economic policies were different. Stalin regarded economic change being a high concern. He pressed through major reforms in agriculture and industry that had wholesale social implications. Nicholas II allowed several economic reconstructs ” as an example the policies of Witte and Stolypin ” but they are not particularly vital that you his conventional mind.
Nicholas II was averse to alter, unlike Stalin who presented constant political social and economic alter. Although this individual enjoyed an autocratic location, Nicholas 2 was personally weak, ready to accept advice especially from the Tsarina. He allowed some courtiers and Rasputin to have an excessive amount of influence. Stalin shared electricity with no one. He demolished those who helped him to power, which includes Kamenev, Zinoviev and Bukharin. The purges destroyed individuals that were not an actual threat to his plan. UCLES 2008 www. xtremepapers. net