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World, Conflict

The sources 8, 9 and 15 can all be used as evidence regarding the position of generals in the Initial World Battle. However , the reliability from the sources may be questioned. Resource 8 is in the form of a novel.

This may mean, as the source is usually not entirely genuine, that some of the data is exaggerated. Another reason how come this supply may not be right is the day that it was crafted. By 1989 many of the recollections and much with the information is becoming distorted or , hazy’. This could show that, again, the information in the origin is not really wholly correct. Source being unfaithful is a soldiers song from the war.

This sort of song is generally extremely biased, as it frequently shows the true feelings of the soldiers who have wrote and sang that. Also it probably exaggerated and might not indicate actual details, affecting how reliable it really is as data. However , tunes and poetry can give all of us an accurate rendering of troops feelings regarding the subject. This is due to the fact that, even though letters etc are censored for content material considered to be sensitive or important, songs and poems are generally not usually censored. This is increased by the fact that it will abide by sources 2 and 3, which are military views of Haig. Additionally , this song is main information plus the views won’t have been changed over time.

Yet , it does not agree with source 12, by Marshall Foch, who have worked with Haig, and says he was “wise, loyal and energetic”, contradicting evidence in the song about how Haig did not actually help the war work. Source 15 is crafted as a poem. It was crafted during the war by a gift who struggled in the warfare, and therefore can be accurate and unchanged. Nevertheless the soldier, Siegfried Sassoon, was injured in the Battle of Arras, and therefore would have bitter feelings, and would possibly possibly feel vengeful of the leadership of the armed service.

Sassoon likewise protested up against the war following speaking to two pacifists and was provided for a wartime mental commence to recover via shellshock, to hide up the demonstration, instead of the usual punishment for this kind of point. This source was likewise written following your major fights of 1916 and 1917, when the frame of mind towards Standard Haig experienced changed to some degree, because of the mass fatalities and casualty figures.

Source being unfaithful says that Haig “boasts and skites”. This indicates that Haig is usually arrogant and boastful, a suggestion which is mirrored in resources 2 and 3 which usually criticise Haig’s leadership, and source 8, when the eradicating of the dead from the battlefield at night is usually likened to “clearing the table ready for the Generals next game of soldiers”. This is viewed as an everyday thing which will not require over thinking. This likewise suggests that Haig was childish and unskilled, as a video game of troops is linked to childhood video games. The advice of incompetence is affirmed by supply 10: “he did to them both simply by his strategy of attack”.

This agrees with sources 2 and three or more where Haig is called a “butcher”. However , this is once again disputed simply by source 12, but also by source 13, which shows Haig to be thoughtful and sensible. Source 10, also, says that it was due to Haig’s “grim determination” and “organisational ability” that the battle was received. Source 5 agrees with this kind of by declaring he experienced “quite sad” about the deaths of the men. Yet , this shows that he is unsuitable to lead the army when he cannot strategy an efficient assault which minimises the amounts of casualties. As they sources are likely to agree on these types of subjects, it suggests that the sources are definitely more reliable.

Source 9 says that Haig was “safely in the rear”, which is consolidated by supply 3, which says that he were living “50 kilometres behind the line”. This also suggests that the source much more reliable as it is backed up by other sources.

6. (a)

Sources 11, 12 and 13 all enhance Haig being very worthy leader with the British army. Source 14 begins by saying just how David Lloyd George, the British Perfect Minister would not have a lot of faith in Haig’s ability, and that he taken off the Generals command. This kind of shows that other folks did not believe that Haig was obviously a good standard. However , source 11 procedes say that Haig worked with the Allied commander, Foch. The cause says that it was due to Haig’s “organisational ability” and “grim determination” the German army was sooner or later defeated. This kind of shows that Haig had the relevant skills required to become a good general, and that he experienced the ability to lead the English army.

Resource 12 identifies Haig’s plan as being “wise, loyal and energetic”. Because of this the Sibling Commander thought fully inside the General. This kind of shows that Haig was intelligent and that he was devoted to his country.

Source 13, simply by Haig himself, highlights qualities in Haig. He says “I think this can be a mistake, because it is merely lounging up trouble for the future”. This shows that he is looking to the near future, and applying foresight. This kind of agrees with the previous source, which will said that Haig was “wise”. He also demonstrates intellect by declaring he concerns whether Germany are “sufficiently low yet”. He is as well demonstrating humanitarianism by saying that he believes that punishing Germany can be described as “mistake”. This kind of evidence almost all shows that Haig is a wise, worthy innovator.

6. (b)

There is an essential reason why the views expressed in options 11, 12 and 13 are different to those expressed in sources almost 8, 9 and 10. This is because the authors of these sources have totally different points of views of the war. In options 8, 9 and 12, the copy writers all have got very narrow perspectives from the war. Resource 8 is definitely written via a military point of view. This implies all the enthusiast would see and consider would be his own trench, the bad conditions, and the amount of people about to die around him. He would likewise see horrific diseases, such as trench ft ., knee deep mud and rats. Therefore , from this, the soldier may blame the commanders, as they are seen as living “50 kilometres behind the line”, (source 3), in relative extravagance. Sources 9 and 12 would likewise have this attitude as they are likewise written by, or about troops.

Sources 10, 12 and 13 are all written by socially higher, higher ranking persons, or, when it comes to source 14, an historian with a larger perspective and hindsight. These folks have a different sort of view to this of the military in that that they weigh up property gained against the number of casualties. From this point of view, the General would not seem to be as bad as in the perspective from the soldiers, who also only observe terrible circumstances and males being slain around them, as in, for example , the battle from the Somme, where conditions had been terrible, and large amounts of males were declining. The General likewise had a politics agenda, and had other things to think about other than circumstances of ditches and the things that concerned the men. Each of the writers of such sources happen to be from related social classes, and would probably , adhere together’. This might provide one more explanation for the frame of mind taken.

In source 10, it brings up that David Lloyd George, the British Prime Minister at the time, did not have as much faith in Haig while, for example , Foch. Lloyd George did not give this self confidence on Haig because of the heavy losses by Passchendaele. Therefore , it could be declared Lloyd George is tallying with the like of the writers of sources 8, being unfaithful and 10, and supporting their ideas. This is also indicating that Haig executed incorrect decisions, great leadership should be questioned, in accordance with the military views.


There are a number of things which could produce it seem to be that the allied victories of 1918 had been gained “against overwhelming odds”. To begin with, the Bolshevik wave in Russian federation meant that Russian federation left the war, causing an increase of German born soldiers going out of the Russian front line, and coming to the European front. This would mean, that if the fights were won, they would have been won against overwhelming possibilities due to the large numbers of troops on the Western front collection. In addition to this, Chicken was likewise repelling soldiers away from its fronts, contributing to the problems and odds of British victory.

The Battle from the Somme was seen as one of the worst battles during Globe War One. Thousands of males were killed on the 1st day only. However , there were very little land gained from the battle. The reason that the attacking was this sort of a failure is that the artillery fire that was supposed to ruin all A language like german forces and bunkers failed. As this failed, as soon as the artillery barrière ceased, the Allied soldiers went to the German strongholds where they will expected right now there to be little or no resistance.

However , the German machine gun posts was set up, as well as the men were killed by the hundred. Also, the barbed wire, that has been supposedly cut very well, was cut in scarce places, so that the machine gunners basically had to stage at an individual place and fire. This kind of meant that injury numbers were enormous. Yet , the United kingdom army learnt many lessons from this battle and were, it is said, become professionals using this battle. Thus, battles like the Battle of Cambrai, in 1918, had been won quickly and effectively with low numbers of casualties. Therefore , the battles could possibly be seen to have been earned against overwhelming odds.

Yet , there was a negative effect on morale due to the failures of the Fight of the Somme, and also because of battles just like Ypres and Passchendaele. This could be seen coming from sources a couple of, 3, almost 8 and being unfaithful. Source two says that Haig was known as the “butcher” around 1917, which will be just after difficulties battles. Resource 3 “I don’t think this individual knew exactly what a university trench was like”, when source almost eight says the Standard was playing a “game of military, and source 9- “the men who also really performed the job happen to be dead in addition to their grave, “. The soldiers are generally are very nasty and irritated towards Haig and the command. This was since weapons were not integrated into strategies properly (such the tank at the Fight of the Somme), the methods were poor, and negative decisions were created on the part of the Generals, just like where to flames the cannon at the Somme. Therefore this shows that the battles that have been won in 1918 had been won against overwhelming odds due to low morale, bad tactics, and badly bundled weapons.

There were other problems with British techniques. One is that the British leader’s attitude was that of offensive combat, they had a great , assaulting mentality’. This meant that they were doing not believe in defence, and because the Germans used the appliance gun so effectively, there were huge probabilities against the English troops getting any earth at all. As well, the British did not effectively utilise the device gun to its full capacity, and so were not as defensively able as the Germans. As a result of this, the German Ludendorff offensive, procedure Michael, extremely nearly succeeded, with the allies only just handling to hold their particular line. The allies learnt important lessons from this, and were much more defensive. Tanks were also an inability in their trial run, as options 6 and 7 support. Source 6th says that “twenty-eight pennyless down, plus the remaining thirty-two scurried in to the mud”. Total, much of the fresh British tools was not properly blended with all the tactics. This meant that it was very unlikely that any property could be gained.

There are, nevertheless , reasons which make it appear that the fights were not so difficult, and that the possibilities were convenient. One essential aspect which helps this is that America joined up with the war. By doing this they brought with them funds, expertise, and overall, more troops. This kind of boosted spirits, and the amounts of troops on all fronts was improved.

There were different major factors which possibly helped the allies to win victories. The German born troops had been hit by Spanish Autorevolezza, causing those to lose lots of men before they will even reached the methodologies. This decreased the numbers of opposing troops, and so allowed the allies easier victories.

In addition to this, Italia left Germany’s side, and, as a result, Indonesia had significantly less troops, and the allies got more. This hindered Australia, and along with the loss of troops through Spanish , Flu virus, caused a big problem.

An additional problem pertaining to the German’s was the boat blockade by the allies, which usually meant that these people were running low on materials, and were struggling to keep going on the supplies they had.

Although the Container was used terribly in the Somme, it was significantly improved, and used to really full potential in the Battle of Cambrai in 1918. This offered the allies a huge advantage, and destabilized the odds against victory. This can be backed by historian Gary Sheffield- “the United kingdom army is an efficient fighting machine”. In origin 7, that justifies Haig’s use of Tanks because of the have to break the stalemate for the western the front. In addition you will find the need for a real trial run to check the containers on the battlefield.

John Terraine likewise says the Allied market leaders deserve even more credit than they were provided. This can be justified and refuted by a quantity of points.

Firstly, the of that ilk leaders were criticised intended for using bad tactics, and then for not patient about mens lives. Yet , if the leadership was so terrible, how come were the generals not replaced? As well, the officers were given advantages at the end from the war, and this may not include happened in the event the leaders were as negative as is said. The market leaders were seen as terrible as a result of nature of the job they were doing. Whatever they were doing, men would die, and Haig noticed this. Also, the Officers were under tight overview, and what they did was being found for the first time, and so naturally people were shocked. Nevertheless , Haig could hardly have been sacked due to the a large amount of community scrutiny. In the event he was sacked, there would be an outcry the fact that army had been led by an incapable leader, which would result in lower comfort, and guys would end joining up. Haig was also good friends with all the King and was in a higher up interpersonal position.

So that it would be hard to sack him. There was likewise no-one to exchange him that was viewed to be good enough qualified. Yet , if Haig just took for granted that whatever he did, guys would expire, then possibly he would not really try to prevent this. Haig’s plan was “to get rid of more Germans than they could get rid of British”. These are generally terrible tactics to employ, yet that was the way he was taught to look at it. Likewise, there was zero evidence that British losses were any higher than the ones from the various other countries. Therefore there is facts for and against the discussion of whether the generals have been given enough credit.

One of the main criticisms viewed in the options written by soldiers is that Haig lived to date behind the queue. Source several says “he lived practically 50 kms behind the line”. However , there was no need for him to live close to the collection. He was instructed to have a large perspective of all fronts and living near to the front collection would not enable this. This individual also thought that all he required to distance himself from his officers, to be able to inspire confidence. However , the criticism against this is that resulting from this, he had “no thought of what having been sending men into”, says Laffin, a reliable historian.

This may affect his judgement, and it could be declared that he did not care about his men if he would not even find out where he was sending them. This is backed with source three or more which says “I don’t believe he recognized what a trench was like”. It is also supported by source four, which says I feel quite sad at times when I see these people march earlier me”, and source 10: “When we met him last week in our approach to the line”. This demonstrates he is not so sad regarding the fact that these men will probably die. Also, it will abide by the fact that he lives a long way at the rear of the line.

A place which back Haig’s strategies is that Haig was trained to lead just how he business lead. At college, Haig was taught to attack, and never defend, thus it can be recognized why this individual did not properly know how to use weapons like the machine weapon. Also, having been using the 1900 cavalry training manual, regarded as standard military doctrine, which usually concentrates a lot on horse and cavalry, rather than new, more modern techniques. This is heightened by options 6 and 7, which say that this individual hoped to use the reservoirs he had to “give him the edge”. However , this individual should perhaps have made the time and effort to change many ways he instructed the military services, in line with the modern advances in weaponry. Likewise, although Haig was trained to constantly attack, and this defence was cowardly, techniques change, and he possibly should have modified to countertop the changes.

Haig was taught to assess the area gained towards the men dropped. He was also taught not to be troubled by large numbers of deaths as long as it was sensible. A possible reason for this is that he presumed very strongly in the existence of God at his side. Even though rather positive, he thought that Goodness would see him through and help him to win the struggle. He likewise believed that men that died for the battlefield because of their country gone merely to “a distinct room”, and that because that were there died patriotically that they will be greatly honoured in death.

Haig was seen to become a good leader who motivated his officers, although one of his main failings was that he would not correct errors, he simply stood back and let them continue, a failing that is incredibly significant when ever training officials. Haig declared that it was not his job to direct the army, that that was the work of his subordinates, and just teaches and works on the military. However , in the event he would not correct mistakes, then he cannot be schooling the military very well.

Haig was greatly criticised for the mass fatalities with the battle of Passchendaele. Lots of men died generally there, and Haig lost a lot of credibility from the inability. Objectives are not met possibly, although there is usually an explanation for Haig’s failure here with the Somme and Ypres. Haig’s Key of Cleverness continued to share with him the German’s had been on the brink of eliminate, and that one more wave of men would finish them. This was not usually entirely true, although Haig had no evidence to suggest in any other case.

Therefore , the simple fact that techniques were consistently bad, and this many men misplaced their lives could be explained. However , Haig repeatedly gone against the guidance of his second-in-command, and the government, especially about the Somme. Having been advised regarding which areas of the Somme to blast, and he also was advised to call off the Somme unpleasant. It was declared that it was not even realistically conceivable to gain any land from your Somme marketing campaign anyway. This could, however , end up being explained by the feed of wrong intelligence mentioned earlier.

There was an extensive perception the war can be “over by simply Christmas”. The Generals were required to try and get this a reality, in the event that not by simply Christmas, after that as soon as possible after. This is proven in supply 7, “I shall make use of what I have got, as I are unable to wait any further for them”. Therefore one more can be wanted to justify why the Generals sent in as many men as is feasible and negative tactics had been repeated.

Haig was taken off temporarily and replaced by French commander, Foch, who also Haig worked with well with. Haig was removed simply by Lloyd George, the British prime ressortchef (umgangssprachlich), who had almost no experience of the war together only stopped at the front line once, to see the kid of a other politician within a field hospital. Therefore this individual could not really have made the decision of whether or not Haig must have been taken off of not. Foch said Haig was “wise, loyal, and energetic”. Therefore the commander who Haig was replaced by says that having been a worthwhile commander, and therefore surely he’s.

There are many quarrels for and against whether the victories of 1918 had been won against overwhelming chances. However , via all the proof, and the resources, the consensus can be reached that they can were not. This conclusion is usually reached mainly because of all the hindrances upon the German armed service, coupled with the changing of sides by simply Italy, and the joining of the United States of America. All these things added collectively meant that although the battles of 1918 had been difficult, they were not received against “overwhelming odds”. The British army had had time to put together, and was ready for the battles.

In addition there are discussions regarding whether the Sibling leaders actually deserve even more credit than they have already experienced. Again, coming from all the resources and data, the conclusion can be made that they do not should have more credit rating. This is due to the reality Haig’s tactics were dated, he would not integrate new weaponry having been given, and he would not care enough for the men’s lives that this individual sent in battle. Although he was provided exaggerated data, and he could not have been completely sacked for various reasons, as Laffin said, “Haig did not succeed, he was presently there at the finish”.

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