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Section 24: Convincing Speaking Target: reach ideal ends by using a honest means

I. Salesmanship ‘the art’ –faculty of observing in a given case the offered means of marketing. Persuasion can be symbolic, non-coercive (not forced) influence a few factors: Context—social, cultural, personal climate Agent—persuader Receiver—audience **Equal opp.

To persuade, Finish revelation of agendas—let market know finish list of goals and how you intend to get viewers there, Essential receivers—have to know what’s staying said Liable agent—takes interaction seriously

  1. Take responsibility for what has been said and cope with consequences
  2. Fosters informed choice—gives all sides
  3. Attracts the best in people—not the worst

Consider device

  1. Aware about attempts to influence—be aware about motives
  2. Informed about important topics
  3. Know their own biases—know what predisposes us—careful to not engage in shielding listening
  4. Aware about methods of salesmanship

Affect the morals, attitude, and acts more

Focus on inspiration: What motivates listeners? Make your message in person relevant Demonstrate the benefit of alter Set humble goals

Focus on issues the audience feels highly about Create credibility

2. Speeches constructed upon argument, 3 varieties of appeals: Logos, Ethos, Passione

  1. Logos—appeal to purpose or reasoning, *Aristotle desired that all attractive done through LOGOS *Our ability to state rationality, attractive to logic and using reasoning to persuade
  2. Ethos—credibility, meaning character. To establish speaker believability: * Present topics seriously, establish identity, commonality, and goodwill, work with personal expertise
  3. Pathos—emotional declares of viewers.

Pleasure, love, anger etc . rive our actions, Done through vivid symbolism **Aristotle said: Two main sources of immediate emotion= APPRECIATE AND FEAR Syllogism— Significant premise clear statement Slight premiseextension of major premises logic Conclusionderived from above two MAIN 1: All individuals are mortal Socrates is definitely human Socrates is human RHETORICAL SYLLOGISM=Enthymeme * Produced by Aristotle * He claims that this convey without declaring EVERYTHING—audience may fill in blanks * Idea is that we could fill in the blank ourselves—that process is usually powerful—us persuading ourselves a few cornerstones of ethical exercise:

Credibility-confidence, personality, ETHOS (as speaker)—worthy of trust *Makes people wish to listen to us, tend to this with care Integrity—a state of incorruptibility—should transmission that we are able to avoid compromising the truth in the interest of personal expediency Stability—respect individuals, cooperation, self-sacrifice Being target audience centered—to who and for whom, worthy, honored, and respected while individuals

3. Target listener needs

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs—each individuals has a simple set of requires that cover anything from crucial to self-improving. Ex. To convince that you use seatbelts, appeal to ones requirement for safety. simple needs: Physiological, Safety, Sociable, Self-esteem, and Self-actualization

4. Mental Involvement

Central control: seriously consider your message, very likely to act Peripheral processing: Shortage motivation to judge argument depending on merits—most likely won’t encounter meaningful alter **For Central processing Link argument to practical concerns, present communication at suitable level of understanding, demonstrate common bond, anxiety credibility

Versus. Sound arguments—offer conclusion, evidence, link to thinking

Claim: says conclusion w/ evidence. A line of reasoning is named a warrant. Fact: Give attention to truth/lie, what will/won’t happen—address issue with 2+ sides Worth: Address common sense issues, correct VS wrong Policy: recommend specific span of action—propose particular outcome Deductive reasoning: commence with general basic principle, use facts, lead to realization Inductive: via specific to generalizations supported—evidence pointing to conclusion

VI. Logical argument: false statement leading to incorrect reasoning

  • Begging the question—argument mentioned so that it cannot help yet be accurate, even without proof
  • Bandwagoning—uses unsubstantiated opinion since false evidence
  • Either-or—gives only two alternatives Ad hominem argument—targets a person and not the discussion
  • Red herring—relies on irrelevant premise to get conclusion
  • Hasty generalization—argument exactly where, in an isolated incidence, it proves authentic and is utilized to make an unprovoked general summary
  • Non sequitur—”does not follow” conclusion will not = thinking
  • Slippery slope—fault assumption that one case will certainly lead to situations or actions
  • Appeal to tradition—Suggest viewers should agree b/c it is “the way its usually been”
  • Responding to core principles: Cultural best practice rules, cultural premises, emotions **BE SENSITIVE

VII. Monroe’s

Motivated pattern: 5 step process, arouse listener attention + end with call up of action—effective when you want target audience to do a thing

Step 1 attention, addresses key concerns, relevance, credibility, etc .

Step 2 Require, describes issue at hand, shows importance of require

Step 3 Fulfillment, identify solution—proposal

Step 4 Visualization, vision of anticipated outcome

Step 5 Action, ask audience to act in accordance to acceptance of message 4 pillars of character:

  1. Trustworthiness—being genuine, revealing the true purpose. Honest and reliable
  2. Respect, acknowledge audience people are unique—NO PERSONAL DISORDERS, allow market power of realistic choice
  3. Responsibility—accountability for what all of us say and do—offering ideal appeals
  4. Fairness—acknowledge all sides of issue—giving the audience adequate facts to make a decision

**In addition—Caring and Citizenship Caring—being kind and compassionate Citizenship—doing our part as people Chapter 18: Using Vocabulary

I. Style * Simplicity—translate jargon into common conditions * Become concise—use fewer words, use repetition 2. Personal pronouns—Draw audience in, encourage engagement Concrete terminology VS Abstract Concrete: conveys specific and tangible connotations * Fuzy: general, leaves meaning to interpretation Imagery—concrete language that paints photographs * Statistics of talk: metaphors, similes, and analogie where words and phrases are used in non-literal style to achieve rhetorical effect Code switching: picky use of language that can give your speech friendliness, humor, earthiness, nostalgia, and so forth AVOID: 2. Malapropisms—incorrect uses of term where this might sound like it matches * Biased language 5. Unnecessary Jargon

II. Voice—active, indicates subject relation to actions Use broadly sensitive and gender-neutral language, shows esteem for philosophy, norms, and traditions Repeating to create rhythm—repeating key words or phrases to produce distinctive rhythm and impose idea in to minds of listeners 5. Anaphora: Repeated phrase at beginning of successive phrases/clauses/sent. Ex. I Have A Dream-MLK Alliteration for poetic quality—Repetition of same sounds in 2+ neighboring terms * Ex. “Down with dope, plan hope”-Jesse Jackson Parallelism—arrangement of words/phrases in similar contact form Helps to stress important suggestions of the conversation, creates beat

* Ex lover. Orally numbering points System of antithesis (One little step to get man, a single giant start for gentleman kind) 5. Repeating a key word in intro, physique, and summary Chapter 25: Speaking about special occasions Speech that is well prepared for a purpose dictated by occasion, could be informative or perhaps persuasive **Commemorative speech—pays homage with important purpose to inspire target audience Employ imagery—stylistic devices, various rhythm 2. Antithesis, alliteration, assonance 5. Hyperbole—deliberately overstating in a bizarre way 2. Analogy Make use of fresh language—avoid overused terms, select words that get the thought 5. Avoid monotony, vary beat, use laughter

When using laughter: * Get familiar self with devices of humor—exaggeration, iron, anti-statement, joke telling * Analyze our personal talents the moment delivering funny speeches—focus on what other people think is definitely funny about you, not everything you think is usually funny 2. Avoid wit pitfalls—steer free from anything attacking * Work with humorous day-to-day experiences—relatable Consider audience—To whom/for whom all of us speak 2. Address market in ways that will resonate with them 5. Use mood to craft an appropriate communication ** That means is created in the nexus between speaker and audience

My spouse and i. Special Occasion Conversation function To entertain, observe, commemorate, motivate or established social plan * Entertain—listeners expect light-hearted, amusing conversation. Speaker gives degree of understanding on subject * Celebrate—Speaker praises subject matter of celebration—a degree of wedding in accordance with rules of the event * Commemorate—offer tribute and memories 5. Inspire—ex. Initial address, important note presentation, commencement—motivate by examples of accomplishment * Arranged social agenda—articulation of goal/group’s values, ex lover. Fundraisers, noces, cause oriented gatherings

II. Speech of Introduction: Heats up the market for primary speaker, improve interest, and build credibility SEVERAL ELEMENTS backdrop, subject of message, event, audience 2. Speaker background—achievements and specifics showing why speaker is pertinent * Subject matter, Preview topic—sense of why subject is of interest, does NOT evaluate talk or touch upon it 2. Ask for target audience welcome 5. Be brief—2 minute utmost.

III. Conversation of Acceptance—response to an award. Purpose: exhibit gratitude pertaining to honor 2. Prepared before hand * Express what the award means to you, convey its value 2. Show appreciation, thank persons by term

IV. Presentation of Presentation— (1) communicate meaning in the award and (2) Describe why recipient is receiving that Convey award’s meaning: what for and represents, mention benefactors and their hyperlink to the prize Explain so why recipient is receiving it: Spotlight achievements, being qualified attributes, and why this individual deserves this Plan physical presentation: Consider logistics beforehand

V. Roast/Toast, roast—humorous tribute that pokes fun, toast—short celebrating talk focused on achievement * Put together: draft, rehearse, etc . but appear improvised * Focus on traits: Limit to 1-2 best qualities that convey qualities loath make the person a focus of celebration * Be positive: have a positive tone as it pays tribute to honoree 2. Be short

VI. Eulogy/other, Eulogy based on Greek words “to praise” Usually made by a close friend or family member of deceased Celebrates an individual’s life, commemorating while consoling those forgotten * Equilibrium delivery and emotion—Audience can be seeking advice dealing with losing, give them closure. * Make reference to family of deceased—Show respect and mention labels, as the funeral is primarily to benefit these people * Be positive, but reasonable: Emphasize deceased’s positive attributes, but prevent excess praise

VII. Following Dinner Speech—light hearted and entertaining, audience are to gain insight into topic. Usually provided at some time throughout a civil, business, or specialist meeting as it is to follow a formal dinner * Recognize occasion—speech should be on topic in order to avoid appearing processed or employed over and over in diff. adjustments. Keep feedback low step to be thoughtful to those consuming

VIII. Creativity Speech—motivate listener to efficiently consider, reflect on, or action according to speaker’s terms. Use psychological force, desire us to purer causes reminding all of us of a prevalent good. Charm to emotions—(1) vivid information and (2) emotionally recharged words 2. Use genuine stories—Examples of REAL people completing goals and triumphing adversities * Be dynamic—inspire through delivery * Have crystal clear goals 5. Distinctive corporation device—help audience remember communication Ex. Acronyms * Dramatic ending—inspires viewers to truly feel or take action Persuasion Aristotle, called marketing “rhetoric” or perhaps “the art. “

Thought as: “the faculty of seeing in a given case the available way of persuasion. ” Kenneth Burkie: persuasion”artful make use of the resources of ambiguity. …Stay away from details, find ways to have the audience identify with the action or perhaps side we want—much just like advertising! **Think of “persuasion as enlightenment—as an opportunity to perspective a different perspective. “, To be able to create some thing from nothing at all by establishing new associations by sharing experiences, and creating understanding in contentious issues. Honest Persuasion: Honest communication and persuasion is surely an ideal—our interaction improves exponentially the nearer we get to the ideal. The goal is to reach the required ends through an honest means. **Persuasion is definitely symbolic, noncoercive influence.

Representational communication – language can be our emblematic representation of reality, No coercive=not compelled, we have an option. In order for marketing to occur ethically the target from the persuasive communication must have the perception of preference, they must recognize that they have a decision whether or not to take the convincing appeal. In order for this understanding of choice to become a reality, many conditions should be met, if perhaps these conditions are not met, then the franche act is definitely coercion not persuasion. Checklist for liable persuasion, have to do before we all engage—ethically, we have to aim to make sure certain characteristics/qualities exist.

The three factors:

  • I. Context – where, the climate—cultural, political
  • II. Agent – the persuader
  • III. Recipient – market

I. Framework (three conditions that must be attained for honest persuasion)

1 . Both/All factors should have similar opportunity to persuade (if all of us only listen to one area we have no choice! ) and sides must have equal use of communication multimedia (but generally one needs money for this).

2 . There should be complete revelation of agendas—each side need to notify the audience of their true is designed and goals and claim how that intends to travel about reaching them. Therefore you must inform the audience where you want to take them eventually, not merely steps over the way—they ought to know your best aim, so you should divulge target.

3. Another condition, and the most important, is that there must be crucial receivers, receivers who test the assertions and evidence available. To become ethical interaction there must be people that can examine what is becoming said—an knowledgeable public with tools to assess, or the speaker/agent should give them equipment. It is the speaker and audiences problem because no one wants to check out learn, function, critically examine, etc .

II. Agent

1 . The responsible agent takes communication seriously which is prepared to take responsibility for what is said and to deal with the effects.

2 . Responsible communication fosters informed decision. We should try to give the audience both sides from the issues were advocating—to provide them with all the information that can be found and then tell them why our side is better.

3. The responsible agent appeals to the best in people, not really the most severe. We must do not take advantage of a great audience’s fears, ignorance, or perhaps biases—if folks are coerced the can jump send later.

III. Device (four things to consider)

1 . Dependable receivers know about attempts to influence. We must be inform, critical, and constantly mindful of the motives of the emails around all of us and endeavors to convince.

2 . Liable receivers stay informed regarding important topics. Issues influencing us has to be investigated so that we are all set when convincing messages hit us.  We are the engines of democracy, we must end up being critical and involved

three or more. Responsible receivers know their own biases. We have to avoid protecting against text messages simply because a communication is upsetting and or challenges what we imagine. We must know what predisposes all of us to look at things in a certain way, and stay careful to never engage in picky listening, etc . This helps us to keep by immediately discounting information.

four. Responsible receivers are aware of techniques of persuasion—so we have to study and pay attention to methods of persuasion (which you are carrying out now! ).

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