Module code: FC 5012T Title: Skills intended for Study you Assignment query: What are the key problems linked to using plastic-type material bags? Identify solutions to reduce these complications. Word depend: 742 Instructor name: Parrot, Marianne Metropolis University Quantity: 110065767 Submitter Date: 26/10/2011 Plastic luggage have been used on a daily basis since 1977 (Williamson, 2003) as a means of carrying items such as food as they are not only convenient but also affordable. However , the over-use of plastic bags has asked significant threats to the environment in recent times because they are nonbiodegradable and also a threat to wildlife.
The primary cause of this matter is that plastics bags aren’t re-used, but simply discarded in landfills. These concerns have both social and environmental effects that are of global concern. This essay will start by illustrating the problems linked to plastic bags, followed by the many ways in which society can wish to resolve this kind of dilemma. The manufacturing process of plastic luggage commences with all the extraction of and controlling of recycleables.
Large amounts of energy are required to draw out crude oil, and most of the electrical power used in the process of manufacturing the plastic used in these carriers comes from coal-fired power plant life (Greenfeet, 2004). The fundamental aspects of manufacturing plastic material bags are petroleum and natural gases (Lajeunesse, 2004), whereby 4% of the world’s total petrol production is used in the production of plastic bags (Greenfeet 2004). The toxic emissions and consequently pollution of chemical compounds and co2 during the production of plastic-type material bags gives a serious matter for the planet.
According to the Start for Lifecycle Environmental Examination (1990), the manufacturing of two plastic material bags creates 1 . one particular kg of atmospheric polluting of the environment, which plays a role in acid rainfall and smoke. Plastic bags are normally sent to different customer countries which in turn also in return has a dangerous impact on towards the environment because of excessive emissions of pollutants such as sulphur (Long and Wagner, 2000). Each year there may be an increase in needs for plastic material bags, and so more will be shipped, creating further environmental pollution concerns.
This embrace demand has result in the phenomenal surge upward in the work with and improper use of plastic-type bags globally, both in produced and growing countries. Statistics show that four to 5 trillion plastic hand bags are made per annum, whereby North America and Western The european countries account for practically 80% (Geographical, 2005, Recylable Bags, 2005). Cheeseman (2007) states that approximately “380 billion plastic-type material shopping luggage are used in america annually, consequently, only 0. 6% on this is recycled. Almost 96% of plastic material bags will be disposed of in landfills (Williamson, 2003).
This leads up to another difficulty as plastic-type material bags will be non-biodegradable , in other words, plastic-type bags do not biodegrade for more than a thousand years (Stevens 2001). Plastic luggage may also land in farms and in oceans which have a direct effect on the creatures. Livestock including cows might eat plastic material bags when grazing. These types of pose a threat if ingested because they may tangle in their stomachs, causing serious injuries and potentially loss of life (Dreyer ain al, 1999, Rasmussen 1999). Each year over the billion wild birds and mammals die because of the ingestion of plastic bags (Baker, 2002).
Many of these problems however , may be addressed as well as resolved in numerous ways. Today, a number of countries have commenced to inflict taxes upon plastic handbag consumption, with few also banning the application of plastic luggage altogether. In Ireland a 15% taxes has now been levied on the consumption of plastic bags, which has resulted in a 90% fall in plastic bag ingestion. Many Asian and Photography equipment countries, which includes China have also issued new policies for the banning of plastic bags (Ganster 2010 and Mountain 2010). Several countries are making new, more environmentally-friendly paper luggage.
These luggage are eco-friendly which means can biodegrade considerably faster when compared to regular plastic-type material bags. In Uganda, bags are now constructed from banana leaves, making them more eco-friendly and are in themselves biodegradable (Hill 2010). Countries including the USA have begun putting into action recycling programs. However , the success of the claims has been limited as such services are not yet widely available (McKinney and Schoch, 2003) and the plastic utilized in the production of such bags aren’t easily recyclable. In conclusion, the problems presented simply by such plastic-type material bags rest throughout this individual production range: from the development process to the way in which plastic-type material bags happen to be overly consumed, through to the ways that they are discarded. Although a number of solutions had been implemented to mitigate the problems caused by plastic-type material bags, there may be still very much to be completed reduce upcoming, drastic consequences to both society and ultimately the surroundings. Marquita E. Hill (2010). Understanding environmental pollution third ed. British: Cambridge college or university press. p345-346. Linda A. Mooney/ David Knox/ Caroline Schacht (2010). Understanding interpersonal problems. a ed. United states: Linda Schreiber-Ganster. p485. Hansard (2007), “Parliamentary Debates inches, Kenya National Assembly Established Record, Jul 25, pp. 15-17. Baker, R. 2002. “Ministerial Quick: Plastic Bag Levy. Website. Accessed October 22, 2011. http://sres. anu. edu. au/people/richard_baker/examples/briefing/minty/Minty. html Geographical. 2006. “Waste: An understanding. Physical 77(9): 34-35. Greenfeet. 2005. “Paper versus Plastic ” The Shopping Bag Issue. Web page. Accessed Nov 20, 2006. http://www. greenfeet. net/newsletter/debate. shtml
Lajeunesse, T. 2004. “Plastic Bags. Chemical and Engineering Media 82(38): 51. McKinney, M. L., and R. D. Schoch. the year 2003. Environmental Research: Systems and Solutions. Mississauga, ON: Williams and Bartlett Publishers. Recylable Bags. 2006. “Facts and figures about the true expense of plastic luggage. Site. Accessed August 25, 2011. http://www. reusablebags. com/facts. php Long, 3rd there’s r., and Meters. Wagner. 2150. “Report Discovers Ships the Dirtiest Travel Source, Triggering Smog at Sea in addition to Port: Court action Filed Against EPA pertaining to Failure to Regulate Large Dispatch Emissions. Site. Accessed November 28, 2005. http://www. commondreams. org/news2000/0717-07. htm Reusable Luggage. 2005. “Facts and figures regarding the the case cost of plastic bags. Website. Seen November twenty-seven, 2005. http://www. reusablebags. com/facts. php Stevens, E. 2001. Green Plastics: An Introduction towards the New Research of Biodegradable Plastics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Williamson, M. J. 2003. “It’s Certainly not My Carrier, Baby! On Earth: Environmental Politics People 25(2) (June): 32-34.