1 ) Compare and contrast important characteristics of two early civilizations (choose from Mesopotamian, Shang, Indus Valley, Chavin, and Phoenician) in terms of three of the following: economy, personal system, fine art and architecture, religion, technology, legacy.
Of the world’s first cultures, all good and distinguished were located on or near a riv. The Mesopotamian and ChavÃn civilizations were no exception for this. Mesopotamia originated in modern-day Iraq in 8000 B. C. E., involving the Euphrates and Tigris Estuaries and rivers, and the ChavÃn civilization was located on the shoreline of present-day Peru in 900 W.
C. E., the place that the Mosma and Huachecsa Estuaries and rivers merge. The Mesopotamian world died straight down by 500 B. C. E., and the ChavÃn rejected by 200 B. C. E. Those two early water civilizations showed many similarities in their political, artesian, and technological developments, but also displayed distinctive differences. Although the ChavÃn and Mesopotamian cultures emerged from opposite ends of the world, these river civilizations shared more similarities than differences due to the fact that they found many of the same challenges.
The political aspects of the ChavÃn and Mesopotamins revolved largely around the religious aspects of the civilization and largely highlighted class. In both these patriarchal societies the main political figure was seen as an intermediary between the gods and the residents of the society. The head of the ChavÃn society was the shaman, who announced to have work authority, and was considered to be a great being. Similarly, the Mesopotamians considered their very own king (referred to while lugals) to have direct exposure to the gods, thus laying out the gods’ wants and wishes towards the society. With the religious physique acting since the head of the political picture distinctclass systems soon formed in both these early cultures.
The ChavÃn’s class program started while using Shaman and his administrators accompanied by other priests, religious numbers, and prosperous merchants. Following this elite course came the tradesmen and lots of laborers. The Mesopotamian sociable classes were nearly the same, with the exception of the wealthy vendors and a much more extensive reduced class. In Mesopotamia the merchants weren’t considered portion of the upper class, nevertheless looked down upon. Likewise, unlike the ChavÃn individuals, Mesopotamia used the use of slaves in the employees and course system. The political features of both societies reflect the similarities in technological developments the two civilizations shared.
The technological improvements of Mesopotamia and the ChavÃn civilizations demonstrate how equally societies managed the issues of agriculture and manufacturing. While expanding early on river civilizations, both societies needed to discover ways to support a greater community. The ChavÃn and Mesopotamia both equally developed remarkably sophisticated water sources systems to improve the amount of cultivable land for more crop development. Along with irrigation equally societies trained animals, the ChavÃn located llamas very useful for travel and leisure, wool, and milk. Even though the Mesopotamians domesticated pigs, lamb, goats, cows, donkeys, and horses for slaughter, travel, and trade.
Besides culture, the two societies were also extremely technologically advanced in regards to the production and make use of metals. The Mesopotamians had been the initial society to use bronze in 4000 B. C. At the. They utilized this new technology to production stronger, more durable tools and weapons. The ChavÃn society was also skilled in metallurgy, but unlike the Mesopotamians, the ChavÃn utilized metals just like silver and gold to produce special religious ornaments and crowns. The main technological improvements of these two early water societies display the related necessities to have and flourish.
The ChavÃn and Mesopotamian societies depended on art and to find business and structure. Both communities used skill in their faith based practices, the administrators on the major ChavÃn ceremonial centre, the ChavÃn de HuÃ¡ntar, used artsy imagery to share their religious ideas through trade. That they accomplished this kind of by making traditional faith based images in a specified purchase which signified different spiritual beliefs. Inthis way the art utilized as a great organizational instrument to help almost all citizens in the society be familiar with religious principles being taught. The Mesopotamians as well used fine art to represent different religious concepts and stories. As opposed to the ChavÃn though, they achieved this by creating sculptures of their Gods. During these sculptures the social need for the person could possibly be determined by the statue’s elevation and facial beard length.
Those people with the highest and most intricate beards had been the gods and lugals, then the priests, all the way into the worshippers at the quickest end from the spectrum. They would then use these statues to tell testimonies about their religious beliefs. This kind of difference in art from the ChavÃn as well as the Mesopotamians could be explained by fact that the Mesopotamians had a standardized written language, called cuneiform, while the ChavÃn did not. This further advancement from the Mesopotamian people allowed them to use their very own art while more of a great aesthetic pleasure. Unlike the ChavÃn, who needed their very own artwork to multipurpose since an explanation with their religion.
Both societies of the ChavÃn and Mesopotamian distributed many prevalent struggles of other early on river communities. They dealt with many of their struggles in similar ways, but likewise worked through some of their problems with different action plans. That they shared various similarities in their political devices, technological breakthroughs, and in all their use of fine art. Their politics systems were very similar mainly because both the ChavÃn and the Mesopotamians had leaders who claimed to be intermediaries between the people and their gods, along with a highly emphasized school system. The societies technological advancements had been similar in the fact that they both equally constructed irrigation systems and learned to use precious metals, but differed inside the purpose of the artifacts manufactured from those alloys.
The presence of artwork in equally societies confirmed how religion was a significant component inside the peoples lives, but the distinct uses of the art displayed how having a written language, like the Mesopotamians did, could greatly result the traditions. Even though both of these civilizations had been on opposing sides on the planet the numerous commonalities they had in political, technological, and artsy advances display how great of an effect that similar topographic features may have on a society.