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Fossil fuel is just not dark colored gold

Based on the literature and observations, then he proposes handful of strategic recommendations to improve efficiency effectiveness both equally to Rules makers and company. ADVANTAGES Coal India Limited (CIL) is a Govt of India Undertaking, Maharatna (Country’s Jewel) company which employees 500, 000 persons approximately as of April’12. In ended previous financial yr, with net annual revenue of 15 billion us dollars, and a net twelve-monthly operating earnings of 3 billion dollars dollars roughly by making coal from the 466 Coal mines throughout India and selling this to Electric power generation companies.

It is the biggest and only listed firm in the sector, where exclusive companies are prohibited to remain competitive, Thus accounting to many of these of Gross annual national production of Coal in India. CIL features five unions, which symbolize all the personnel in the organization. Since the organization is only significant coal manufacturer and acts more like a monopoly inside the sector, pay are low compared to Industry average in other countries. Coal India apart from producing coal by itself also provides few coal mines to private businesses for contract.

These puits are smaller in size and distant for the company to set aside resources, hence they are contracted. This strategy of contracting coal mines but not having enough regulations around Coal development has led to few private installers preferring illegitimate means of career in these coal mines and not allowing private competitors to compete with Open public sector companies COAL IN INDIA American indian Coal Industry currently occupies third placement by creating 400 metric tons annually ( mtpy), after US (1100 mtpy and Chinese suppliers 2400 mtpy.

Within the country Coal exploration is nationalized and makes up about 60 % of electrical energy production. Fossil fuel being vital resource for economical growth, it truly is safeguarded simply by government by simply passing a large number of acts, Indian Mines Action of 1952, Mines and Minerals Control and Development (MMRD) action are the key legislative take action meant for guarding labour doing work in mining sector and governing mining and exploration in India correspondingly.

After additional revision in 1993 and 2002, Nationwide Mining Policy was discussed by Government of India whose aims are mineral development through exploration in both Onshore and Just offshore fields. Insurance plan is meant to market mineral sector standardize teaching and exploration, considering foreseeable future needs in the country with minimal influence of character and ensure safety and overall health of all persons involved in the market. These aims do make a progress in standardizing the principles, however it needs to clearly illustrate how the rules handles relaxed mines and how to deal with illegitimacy under current law.

Relating to a Reporter expert of small puits Chakravorty (2002), Illegal puits in India constitute of 88 % of the total reported mines in depend, producing approximately 10 percent of the total value of mineral development of the nation. This quantity has increased in the last decade, where 30 % of illegitimate mining. These mines include poor people working for cheapest wages many negligible secureness, health and safety conditions. In accordance to MMRD Act, Mines Act and also other Environmental Functions, all mineral deposits are commonly classified in “Major and “Minor and rest the obligation of mining with the point out.

MMRD has further categorized mines provides Class A or Class B identified based on the mechanical gear used and Labour job the mine generates. Based on financial expense, Labour operate, Depth of deposits and technology used, mines happen to be simplified to different Classes and given to get contract. Typically Class B mines are given for deal to subsidiaries by CIL, One such model is Eastern Coal Areas, in condition of Meghalaya, where although they mines are Small , and they are time intensive and desires to have high security and health criteria.

National Institute of Little Mines (NISM), a regulating body has classified puits based on the production amounts. Via various serves above, it is usually understood that legal meanings hinge upon physical sizes of my very own, which is consequently is used to determine the effort and time needed to mine. Nevertheless for a complex economic activity like mining with close sociable linkages and unique towards the nature from the mine, this sort of reductionist way and simplifying mines morne the range of mining practices throughout scales.

As large formal processes of mineral removal, processing and use may not be applied to such small puits they tend to get rejected and Illegitimated. Plainly, existing laws and regulations have weaknesses which are inadequate in controlling perennial Relaxed and Illegitimate mining. As well Illegal miners cannot lobby for recognition, since current structure from the sector is definitely monopolistic with over 80% reserves underneath CIL. This case has ended in dire consequences and health of Neighborhood society about colliery areas and environment. COAL INDIA, A MONOPOLY

Coal India Limited (CIL) established in 1970, is responsible for exploration the fossil fuel, while the possession of which is usually vested with the state. Consequently the organization features played a vital role in meeting california’s growth ideas. The decision producing on nutrient resources is definitely influenced by simply engineers, geologists, bureaucrats and political groups and governance is only vested with CIL. The Coal Mines Nationalisation Costs, 2000 allows state governments to acquire coal only when CIL says with no Objective to my very own certificate.

The Ministry of Coal ( MoC ) has awarded CIL a near monopolistic power, supplying rise to tight control on their country’s stores and insufficient transparency in numerous areas. Due to lack of more complex technology pertaining to procuring coal and other interpersonal costs, it is also noted that mining expense of Coal in India is 35% above other transferring countries just like Indonesia, Australia, because of poor productivity ( 3 tonnes / person shift ) as compared to 12 tonnes as well as man change in Australia.

Being a solution privatising of fossil fuel sector is definitely attempted, however it is still in preliminary level. The challenge to policy manufacturers in this regard is to ensure how to safeguard the wealth by illegal exploration and environment within the region, at the same time benefit people in mining areas by making regulations that do certainly not outcaste people and their livelihoods as illegitimate also guarantee greater transparency and standardization in charges of coal.

In approaching years, with regard to coal near your vicinity is anticipated to increase multiple fold, according to IEA 2006, Reuters news agency 2007, consequently the need for government to restructure the sector is critical to not only to solution many global implications regarding climate adjustments and Kyoto Protocol and but also streamline the definite embrace informal collieries which will carry on and meet the requirements of regional consumers and ensure they meet minimum secureness and well being standards of living. CULTURAL IMPACT

Fossil fuel India Limited has damaged environment in numerous coal remnants with no or perhaps little matter for cultural implications, Inspire of Forest and environment controls. This behaviour may be attributed to only monopoly electricity vested with one firm on nation’s coal development. There were various other instances of infringement of human rights noticed while staff people in Coal puits One such case, It was mentioned that for Janita Hillsides, Meghalaya, India. 5000 children less than age of 18 was trafficked coming from Assam, Nepal and Bangladesh and employed by coal mines in Meghalaya which are contracted to personal contractors by CIL.

Various such situations were noticed not only in eastern part of India, but as well across many nations’ fossil fuel traces in West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka claims. Inspite of the Mines Act, 1952 which will doesn’t enable bonded labourers or people below the age of 18 to work. Sometimes even without environment degradations, large mining projects have affected social lives with critical implications for the livelihoods of regional communities about in and around fossil fuel traces, wherever people were forced to leave their very own traditional occupations for scavenging in left over coal traces, which are not economically viable for installers.

Such occasions were seen in Jharkhand, wherever government and company officials have neglected social and cultural problems around the exploration areas for many years impacting the livelihoods of people living in these kinds of areas. This has created a dependence on extreme leftist or Maoist Movements to resist such acts” as observed by Chandra Bhusan, Associate Director of Center of Science and Environment. According to him American indian Mineralised tracts are mostly in conflict Zones, as Company representatives, technical professionals and governing bodies hardly ever seriously involved with cultural issues.

Current legal instruments are anti-poor and of colonial time vintage and unable to deal with today’s realities. Many Detrimental Non-Governmental Business groups took a non-violent approach to employ existing contencioso mechanisms just like filing Community Interest Litigation(PIL) to bring rights to neighborhood communities whose daily lives are impacted. Former mate: PIL registered against Eastern Coalfields Limited by Mazdoor Sabha in Country’s Apex courtroom. Although Supreme Court Panel has lashed against CIL, It continued to be unresponsive INTERPERSONAL LICENSE TO OPERATE

Over the past two decades many changes had been noticed in global mining industry. There is improved and concerted global efforts where 9 major global companies reinforced a global range project named Mines, Minerals and Environmentally friendly Development (MMSD) Project, in whose direct outcome is to the increasing fees of environmental destruction and irresponsibility in coal exploration companies to care socio-cultural changes due to them in areas of procedure are outlined and used globally.

MMSD group of firms agreed that Mining Company in developing countries not only needs Legal license to operate but likewise Social License to Operate. Beneath this backdrop At CIL, mining technicians who help to make all the strategies, mining project itself presumes more importance over persons living in these types of mining procedures. This perspective was observed from many bureaucrats in India, CIL uses their rationale that Land Buy Act or Coal Bearing Areas Act does not give assistance for Local people around the impacted areas, thus disregarding local needs and perpetuating illegal exploration under its belt.

ILLEGITIMATE COAL EXPLORATION AND HAZARDOUS WORKING CIRCUMSTANCES In energy-hungry country like India, demand for coal has increased in the last a couple of decades, coal production remained fairly stable, causing fossil fuel prices to surge lately. The lack of reform and increasing demand have got spawned a seedy underbelly of “Coal Mafia and a class of workers that illegally rove the souterrain for coal. The Fossil fuel Nationalization take action in 1952, revised in 2000 made it legal for just the centre or state governments to allow coal exploration, i.., simply government owned or operated companies, it is subsidiaries and contracted businesses. Apart from unlawfully mining, scavenging from abandoned mines is another source of obtaining coal. In West Bengal state for instance Raniganj-Jharia area there are many deserted mines simply by CIL subsidiaries which have neglected filling up the mines with sand, according to regulation, consequently villagers have got ready entry to scavenge.

It was also observed that open abandoned underground mines release hazardous gases like Carbon Monoxide which are unsafe and can destroy people who head to scavenge left over coal. Scavenging can occur in both subterranean and open cast mines. The afterwards assumes greater significance. During these areas Poor Security of mines storage space and transportation was noticed where coal is transferred with brain baskets in to awaiting trucks. Coal India also offers coal to local deal dumps located near the puits and big dumps, pilferage occurs regularly about major highways from lengthy distance.

In eastern India, It’s certainly not unusual to determine women and kids work the unsafe souterrain with the the majority of rudimentary equipment. Most are drawn to it with the hope of earning a betterincome. In respect to World Bank, 20+ million persons depend on nutrient resource removal for living. When this number is compared with formal mining companies it is hugely large. PAUPERIZATION IN COAL MINING AREAS IN INDIA In colliery areas where CIL operates, significant amount of social and environmental transformation takes place during time.

Inside bureaucratic and political groups the notion that Coal being a commodity has been excavated intended for greater prevalent good by a Central federal government owned body like Fossil fuel India Limited, represents not enough attentions to people’s pursuits and interpersonal impacts of mining coal. Decay of social fabric, erosion of traditional livelihood, rising numbers of urbanisation are a few of the compa?ero impacts which will vary in accordance to physical proximity from the mine to livelihoods.

Among 1971 and 2001, persons in Ranijang region in west Bengal have slowly moved from agriculture since an occupation to mining and scavenging, also in non-colliery areas. Women especially from downtrodden famille and listed below poverty series are many impacted by this migration. In areas of Jharkhand gradual pauperization of people around coal exploration areas have taken place in which in turn traditional land and water rights in the region in which that they live will be lost and few minimal short term benefits associated with mining happen to be accrued that may is leading to constant extinction of tribal people in remote control coal exploration areas.

For most of the situations, links between your legal and illegal coal mines are more complex than above case. Both the organizations either co-exist or fossil fuel mining company complains against scavenging to local authorities since law and order difficulty, however bureaucratic reply is often pointing the organization should take proper care of its resources. Hence in the existing legal setup each party formally or perhaps informally will endeavour to co-exist peacefully.

Similar setup exists between large scale and small scale transportation in centralized control manner handled by cricca group. Area of the root cause pertaining to such bad maintenance, vehicles and distribution systems is with CIL and its subsidiaries where they can be not standardised and do not consider domestic consumer, In the complete eastern region CIL doesn’t always have large depot to provide the demands of home consumers. Hence often sector owner is applicable for a permit to scholarhip coal to fireplace the furnaces or create power.

This permission is definitely difficult to acquire and consumer need to give incentives to any advanced parties via company representatives, bureaucrats and politicians resulting in significant expense cost for the company, there by choosing a short and easier coal removing methods simply by joining hands with mafia system or illegal exploration. STRATEGY PRODUCTION PROCESS FOLLOWED BY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA AND FOSSIL FUEL INDIA In the above sections, various issues faced by the community, firm and the program at large happen to be explained.

To understand the issue in hand better also to analyse the problems lingering the sector better, Government’s and Company’s behaviour with bigger society is compared with few Strategy making processes. Relating to writer, current system has a predefined set of goals and is thriving to achieve that without taking into account other subject matter involved in entire scenario. This behaviour aptly fits into Time-honored approach outlined by Grant (2008).

The reductionist way by MMRD and other serves by the Govt can be planned to this way Government planning to oversimplify the complexities linked to various mines based on particular factors just like Size, efficiency etc ., this kind of approach causes formation of clear goals to the Organization and does not allow the organization to recognize the emergent conduct of the staff, people livelihoods in influenced areas. Beneath is a revised representation of Grant’s Classical approach of Strategic Hrm.

Figure 1: Common components in good Strategies, Followed from Give ( 08: 7) Author notices that because of monopolistic nature of coal mining sector in India and sufficient support from personal circles, there is not sufficient pressure on the firm for Deep understanding of every one of the groups included. In Most in the cases, Long-term agreed aims takes even more priority over other goals mentioned just like Profound Knowledge of all teams involved, Regular Appraisals of employees involved and Environmental awareness.

Hence the company will focus on economical targets to accomplish more than Sociable Impact celebrate in thousands of people it affects. Thus it is usually stated that Classical way readily will not fit in or perhaps help in resolving the issue. Current Intended strategy of Government of India, at the rear of Nationalization of Coal mining in 1952 is to guard the stores from fermage by personal parties can be well recognized, however with the changing occasions, growing require and involvement of various additional socio-political and technological factors, Intended Strategy is not being completely understood.

There is a strategic effort about its portion, to ensure current intended strategy works by allowing for illegal mining and scavenging by residents in fossil fuel mining areas in order to quietly co-exist and continue to acquire in coal traces. On the other hand by contrasting the number of the courtroom petitions registered by local tribes in Jharkhand, WestBengal living closer to to various collieries, comparing the productivity as well as person and high cost of exploration compared to other export countries it can be realized that, slowly they are going towards an unrealized strategy where concentrate is only in net volumes realized and never considering environmental impact.

AUFSTREBEND STRATEGY OF STRATEGIC HRM In practice firm approach could be explained by Aufstrebend Strategy way as advised by Mintzberg (1987) are relevant. According to 03 (1976) and Mintzberg (1987), planned tactics are not always realized; approaches can often come up and develop over a period of period. The Approach should be molded over actions. Similar this kind of fluid way can be used, where an extra dimension as mentioned below in Emergent strategy is required to get over unrealized strategy and to improve the company’s desired goals.

Privatization of coal mining along with a alternative review of existing mining plans impacting the sector may be the emergent technique to improve the efficiency, transparency of coal development and livelihoods of people involved. However its application remains a challenge. Determine 2: The Emergent Technique, source in the strategy strategy, California Administration Review, Mintzberg. H, 1987. Systemic Strategy of Proper Human Resource management

In similar lines to Aufstrebend Approach of Strategic Hrm, Whittington(1993, 2001) systemic strategy provides even more answers for the issue, wherever Strategy can be shaped by the social program the company operates within. This tactic is formed by cultural and institutional interests of broader society, since organisations and decision makers will be embedded in network of social relations, hence successful understanding of the needs in the society in particular and performing accordingly needs to be key. FINAL RESULTS Profit-Maximising OPERATIONS

Deliberate Emergent Pluralistic Time-honored Evolutionary Systemic Processual RESULTS Profit-Maximising PROCEDURES Deliberate Zustande kommend Pluralistic Time-honored Evolutionary Systemic Processual Figure: 3Whittington’s (1993) generic point of view on technique Author believes Emergent and Systemic way of planning a technique is likely and necessary by all parties involved( equally policymakers and industrialists ) in order to function in complex world with various socio-geo political limitations. This it can be concluded that to efficiently manage man esources and also to improve enterprise performance, incorporation between human resource management and business strategy retains key for its success. (See Holbeche, 99; Schuler and Jackson, 1999). EMPLOYEE RELATIONSHIPS IN COAL INDIA Coal India has both union and nonunion based workers. Starting from 2009, it has been prospecting more than 1000 employees every year from most recognized management and technology schools across India. This is one of management endeavours taken to provide fresh blood vessels and reduce the average age of their labour power.

While the decision to sponsor young very talented staff as modify agents can be appreciable, 30 to forty five per cent of those employees leave every year pertaining to below reasons. 1) Personnel felt they were demoralized by simply senior personnel from the beginning. 2) Apart from earnings issues, the staffs had been under-utilised and faced hatred from aged people. 3) Although recruitment, employees were assured a level above technicians however not fully implemented even following raising the care to top management.

Therefore realized you will discover limited expansion options. Treasurer of Coal Mines Representatives Association of India partly accepted the conditions and commented this situation displays the larger trouble of nullwachstum within the business It is comprehended, if the circumstance continues, the county’s best coal manufacturer is likely to grapple with unmatched HR catastrophe across it is executive cadre because of limited growth options and 6000 of their employees mostly via executive cadre getting retired every year.

Falling on relevant literature, Kochan. T, 2000 has mentioned that Hard anodized cookware model of staff relations is made to support an economic strategy that emphasises human resources as a competitive asset- A strategy that requires an experienced and fully commited workforce and a supportive labour administration culture and system. In Coal India, it can be noticed that there are needed structures in position like Assemblage for work management, because the company is actually big, administration of methods is difficult.

Since the organization works within a monopolistic composition, there isn’t healthy competition which will push the management to pay attention to current internal and external problems with even more vigilance instead of its current laid back procedure and bureaucratic functioning. It might be noted that HR tactics should work consistently as is a vital part of the overall strategy (Stroh and Caligiuri, 1998).

Within the organisation senior management there will need to regularly perform analysis about the kind of HUMAN RESOURCES competencies required in the future, and accordingly core HR capabilities (of purchase, development and compensation) should work together each to meet this sort of needs. (see Holbeche, 1999). The 2 primary aspects which organization has to focus is definitely Integration of HRM in the business and company strategy, as well as the devolvement of HRM to line managers instead of workers specialists, thus ensuring organization doesn’t have power blockages and let it to operate smoothly.

Brewster and Larsen (1992: 411″12) define the use as ‘the degree where the HRM issues are considered to make long term business strategy’ and devolvement since ‘the level to which HRM practices involve line managers has accountable rather than employees specialists’. In the same way (Budhwar and Sparrow 1997; 2002; Hope-Hailey et ing., 1997; Truss et ing., 1997; Sisson and Storey, 2000) likewise highlighted the idea of devolvement for quicker response in large scale organizations. This process, highlights the need of prioritizing the problems and developing/ training even more motivated employees for effective control.

Instead of having a filter hierarchy with in organization, right now there by ultimately causing stagnation, it is usually learnt from this theory that local complications should be resolved by neighborhood managers in grassroots level affording additional time for senior management. Applying this theory to Fossil fuel India Limited, It can be recognized that mine managers ought to be more proactive is liaising with local governments and bureaucracies to create an cheery solution to get betterment of society along with company. Business senior administration should function closely and provide required assistance and expert to acquire managers to perform their duties.

In this framework, the Coal India Limited management may learn from other global colleagues to understand how to overcome employee relationships related concerns effectively. Listed below is the summary of one this kind of example explained by a writer Young-Kee Betty, in his report on Staff relations. LG ELECTRONICS group from its inception right up until 1987 achieved high prices of economical growth with support via Government simply by suppressing unions, however in the time of 1987-89 it has encountered severe hostility and hits from its staff because of which usually resulted in 740 million dollars of loss. Post 1990 till june 2006, as a result of research and many considerable internal online surveys the roup has placed importance to new group level policy that emphasis the campaign of human dignity for employees and the maximisation of customer satisfaction. Voluntary worker participation in workplace efficiency improvements continues to be identified as a vital success aspect. Consequently the rapid realization of cooperative labour associations and educated ER practices has been recognized as duties of significant significance my member companies. * Firm has evolved little by little from Unaggressive support of Management notion of union to lively partnership with unions.. It gradually built a careful move from not just keeping a stable time relations environment in order to avoid time disputes, they have invited a voluntary involvement of staff and union leaders in management activities. 5. Unions features of providing weak employee support to being professional in their actions and finally Employee Relations have got moved from just coping with basic problems to featuring autonomy and participation of employees To sum up example it could be understood that Firstly, with out management creativity, co-operative Staff Relations may not be achieved.

Intended for Labour supervision relations to be a positive sum game, these innovations ought to enable the corporation to achieve outstanding performance and the capacity to give employees with better returns. Secondly, much time and effort is needed from best management to formulate a beneficial labour managing culture. The Employee relations office cannot attain the development of cooperative employment relationships by itself. The labour administration relationship must be viewed as money ” creating relationship, rather than cost “creating one.

Thirdly, the company will need to support improved independence and professionalism on the part of the union and provide education for union leaders. A union that lacks professionalism is unable to get yourself a full support of the members and lacks successful management strategies for administering union business as a result of high proceeds of union officials. Fourthly, to be successful these activities should be conducted regularly and systematically over time. Corporations only you should consider the labour management marriage when faced by a essential problem.

These kinds of focused interest tends to reduce when the strike is resolved. As discussed in the above example, LG ELECTRONICS group offers chosen a different path and spent 12 months analysing its Employee relationships. CONCLUSION CAN BE PRIVATISATION AN ANSWER? Currently the two globally and India, with regard to coal can be on the rise, therefore increasing the values of fossil fuel. Due to the volatile times getting through, similar to different commodity sectors like Iron, steel, Fossil fuel Mining market will also experience divestment and monopoly of Coal India Limited will break. Even so privatisation is usually not a remedio for all problems lingering the sector.

The come intended for Policy creators, bureaucracy and also other parties involved come together to resolve few critical questions when restructuring the sector. 1) How to deal with many individuals making all their livelihood coming from illegal exploration of coal? 2) Does the government capable of accept handful of realities just like people moving into local location, have rights on vitamin resources to strength the bottom strata and supply a sense of security to their livelihood? 3) Can the government, restructure the sector with more powerful, full proof, social informed laws protecting and respecting the rights and pursuits of all engaged? ) With experience from privatising other goods, after privatising coal mining, it can be approximated that mushrooming of little coal mining leases could be experienced in an open marketplace scenario. Therefore laws and policies safeguarding the hobbies should be more inclusive than previously. Where policies and laws and regulations have to deliver sustainable benefits to community and global communities, unlike current laws that are focused only upon mitigating the negative influences of exploration on the environment and marginalizing small teams over national priorities.

Authorities policies need to take a more holistic approach in understanding about production of “Illegal mines along with marketing and syndication chains whereby legally extracted coal can be illegally sent out. It is vital to integrate community interests in mine administration plans to provide access to helpful local people and co-exist quietly for specially growth.. Referrals: Books and Internet Links * Bamber J, Park F, Lee C, Ross P and Broadbent T, 2000, Work Relations inside the ASIA-PACIFIC Changing Approaches, Allen and Unwin, Australia. BeardWell J; amplifier; Claydon T, 1994, Man Resouce Management ” A up to date Approach, Pearson Education Limited, Great Britian. * LG ELECTRONICS Group ( 1994) LG ELECTRONICS Labour ” Management Associations Long-term Style Report 5. http://www. thehindubusinessline. com/companies/article2470720. ece * http://economictimes. indiatimes. com/coal-india-ltd/infocompanyhistory/companyid-11822. cms 5. http://articles. economictimes. indiatimes. com/2011-10-18/news/30295579_1_iits-and-iims-new-recruits-cil * http://www. firstpost. com/business/labour-pangs-for-coal-india-scrip-melts-in-the-heat-67084. tml * http://in. reuters. com/article/2012/10/12/tci-coalindia-idINDEE89B08G20121012 2. http://www. dnaindia. com/money/report_coal-india-to-face-india-s-first-class-action-suit-in-15-days_1770358 2. http://www. livemint. com/Companies/jEkLsitce5Qt0wx3gyS3sM/Coal-India8217s-UK-shareholder-to-file-petition-in-Indian. code * http://ibnlive. in. com/news/meghalaya-braveheart-fights-against-child-labour-in-coal-mines/266778-3. html * http://www. amusingplanet. com/2011/05/child-labor-in-indian-coal-mines. html * http://www. elshcoalmines. company. uk/forum/read. php? 4, 50329, 50370#msg-50370 * http://www. mining. com/los-angeles-times-uncovers-child-labour-in-indias-coal-mines/ 5. http://articles. timesofindia. indiatimes. com/2012-11-14/guwahati/35111450_1_child-labourers-coal-mines-meghalaya-government * http://www. businessinsider. com/photos-indias-illegal-coal-mines-2012-10? op=1 5. http://www. thesundayindian. com/en/story/the-unfortunate-social-costs-of-coalgate-and-such-scams/42442/ * http://papers. ssrn. com/sol3/papers. cfm? abstract_id=1716581 5.

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