OBSTACLE contains a fantastic graphics package deal for generating graphics and visuals to improve the display and reporting of statistical information. Primary of this study is to look at the design uses of the SAS program and to supply a description for each use of images with the BARRIÈRE system then to assess the OBSTACLE system with other graphics deals available in modern-day market. Toward this end, this job will perform a review of books in this area of study.
(1) What are the different types of graphics that can be performed using the SAS system?
(2) What are the applications of SAS images?
(3) How does SAS design differ from other graphics packages?
The work of Phil Spector reports that the SAS system was developed in the early 1970s decade for North Caroline State College or university and was intended at first for use simply by management and analysis of agricultural discipline experiments. (paraphrased) SAS is reported as the utmost widely used statistical software. BARRIÈRE stands for ‘Statistical Analysis System’. SAS goods are reported by Spector ( ) to incorporate those mentioned as follows:
(1) Base BARRIÈRE – info management and basic techniques;
(2) SAS/STAT – statistical analysis;
(3) SAS/GRAPH – presentation quality graphics;
(4) SAS/OR – operations study;
(5) SAS/ETS – Econometrics and Time Series Evaluation;
(6) SAS/IML – Conversation matrix vocabulary;
(7) SAS/AF – applications facility (menus and interfaces); and (8) SAS/QC – quality control. (Spector, nd, p. 2)
Spector reviews that there are other “specialized products for spreadsheets, access to sources, connectivity between different equipment running SAS” as well as other folks. (nd, g. 2) The majority of SAS applications have two primary components: (1) the info step(s); and (2) the procedure step(s). (Spector, nd, l. 3) The information step “reads data coming from external options, manipulates, and combines that with other data set and print studies. The data step is used to prepare the data to be used by one of many procedures. inch (Spector, nd, p. 6)
SAS is usually reported as being “very lenient about the format of its input – transactions can be split up across lines, multiple claims can display on a single series and blank spaces and lines can be put into make the system more understandable. ” (Spector, nd, p. 6) The procedure steps are such that “perform analysis around the data, and produce outputs” often in large amounts. (Spector, nd, p. 6) The most efficient learning technique for SAS is usually concentration on the “details with the data stage and learn the main points of each procedure” as there exists a need for them. (Spector, nd, p. 6)
It is through UCLA Academics Technology Companies that BARRIÈRE graphics incorporate:
(3) SAS/ANALYST; and (4) SAS/PROCS. (UCLA Academic Technology Services, 2012, p. 1)
Graph-N-Go can be reported to be primarily intended for reporting and have the strong point of “flexibility to save a plot in several formats, which includes graphic structure and html format. It is weak point is the fact it only supports a couple of graph types. ” (UCLA Academic Technology Services, 2012, p. 1) The Graph-N-Go reporting makes a graphic that appears inside the following example labeled Number 1 .
Physique 1 – Graph-N-Go
Source: UCLA Academic Technology Providers (2012)
SAS/Insight is reported as a package that can be used inside the exploration of adjustable and human relationships among factors. The strong point is that this bundle offers a great amount of detailed details concerning factors including “such as univariate statistics. ” (UCLA Academic Technology Services, 2012, g. 1) In addition , all of the graph files could be saved to. gif data or various other graphic documents. The constraint is that it is hard to modify area of style with the graphs. However , its good feature is usually its interaction feature, which in turn enables hunt for data “both graphically and analytically. inch (UCLA Academics Technology Solutions, 2012, l. 1) The subsequent illustration reveals the SAS/Insight graphics case in point:
Figure 2 SAS/Insight Graphical (Rotating Plot, YZX)
Origin: UCLA Academics Technology Solutions (2012)
OBSTACLE Analyst attempt to explore and report and is described as an outstanding place to begin since many types of graphs can be creating plus the SAS code for creating the plots is created as well and the settings can be changed and code altered if it is required. This is true pertaining to graphics and statistical examination. The following example shows an SAS/Analyst graph.
Figure a few SAS/Analyst Graph
Source: UCLA Academic Technology Services (2012)
The options used to generate this kind of analysis happen to be reported being that mentioned as follows:
goptions ftext=SWISS ctext=BLACK htext=1. 0 cells;
goptions colors=(red green blue cyan purple suntan pink lemon brown yellow-colored plum peru salmon lime);
axis1 label=(a=90 r=0);
*** Produce pub charts ***;
proc gchart data=Work. Hsb2;
/ description=”Vertical Bar Data of WRITE”
goptions ftext= ctext= htext=;
IV. SAS/Procs: Univariate, Boxplot, Gplot, Gchart, G3d
The SAS/Procs: Univariate, Boxplot, Gplot, Gchart, G3d is reported useful in the creation of more customized types of graphs. Types of graphs created with SAS/Procs include those in the subsequent figures:
Number 4 – Histogram
Supply: UCLA Educational Technology Providers (2012 )
Figure five – The same histogram improved due to the capability to modify options and make changes.
Origin: UCLA Educational Technology Services (2012)
The between the SAS System and also other graphics packages is reported in the work of Schabenberger to include that even though the “core of the BARRIÈRE System includes several methods for basic line inkjet printer graphics, such as PROC PLAN and PROC Chart, the output of these techniques are not distribution quality. inches (UCLA Academic Technology Services, 2012, g. 1) The SAS/GRAPH component contains procedures for creating top quality graphics. While it is easy to work with procedures such as GPLOT, GCHART, G3D, etc . And produce some nice looking graph on screen, it really is yet another tale to format these design for a particular output device, so that they can always be printed, replicated to a expression processor, exported as GIFs, etc . inch (UCLA Academic Technology Providers, 2012, g. 1) The study of the SAS/GRAPH includes a manual two volumes in length, which is required to learn the “ins and outs of this process. inches (UCLA Educational Technology Providers, 2012, l. 1)
Sixth is v. Comparison to Other Graphics Packages
There are other images packages which includes SigmaPlot, PlotIt, Axum yet others “where graphs are created from spreadsheet just like data. Observation are placed around the graph in an interactive trend. The chart type is chosen through a graphical user interface, and so on. In SAS/GRAPH graphics are produced generally by development statements inside the PROGRAM MANAGER and carrying out them (there are other approaches to create graphs in SAS, e. g. SAS/INSIGHT and SAS/SPECTRAVIEW). The meaning of responsable, annotations, remarks on the graph, the data to be used, the type and form of symbols and contours are all area of the program. inches (UCLA Educational Technology Companies, 2012, l. 1) Novice users find this tough however , it is just a powerful characteristic enabling the user to gain “complete control over the appearance of a chart, it ends in a storable program that can be executed another time for a several data collection, producing basically the same graph with fresh data. You can create multiple graphs by a data established with annotations that are placed identically, can change their principles depending on the articles of a info set with out user involvement. Rather than storing a huge graphics file” the consumer can choose to save a small BARRIÈRE program that creates the required graphic after execution. (UCLA Academic Technology Services, 2012, p. 1)
Goptions are reported as the graphics choices that give explanation to the result device regarding the format of the design and whether there is a display screen preview display, or the info is written to a data file, or with regards to the graph size or orientation, the establishing of alternatives enables the person to trim down the step-by-step statements, code in axis and legend definitions. (UCLA Academic Technology Services, 2012, paraphrased)
The effort of Friendly (nd ) reports that statistical graphics has as the goal increasing insight into the data and claims that SAS/GRAPH procedures only “often will not go much enough in providing the various tools for the most powerful visual shows and studies on several useful graphical displays that cannot be made by the basic SAS/GRAPH procedures and shows how they may be created by general macro applications applicable to any dataset. inch (p. 1) Friendly (nd) states that the basic SAS/GRAPH procedures make provision of “a wide range of options for graphic display of data – including charts (pie graphs, bar chart, 3-D obstruct charts) scatterplots (with items, needles, bubbles, regression lines, etc . ), 3D plots (scatter, area or contour) as well as services to display geographical data on a variety of roadmaps. ” (Friendly, nd, p. 2) Friendly writes that making the provision to get the basic building of custom made graphic exhibits are “Annotate, PROC GREPLAY and SAS/IML. ” (nd, p. 2) Each of these happen to be explained the following:
(1) SAS/IML – a full-featured terminology for record computation and graphics on its own. Especially useful in applications that require computation upon