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Prevention of Calcium Carbonate Precipitation in Synthetic Formation Waters

string(40) ‘ denseness of steel selections is 7821 kg. ‘

A fresh graduated table inhibitor to get bar of Ca carbonate precipitation in man-made development Waterss


From this probe, a new repressive chemical composing was developed. The made inhibitor is dependent on the aqueous solutions of oxiethilidendiphosphone acid, hydrochloric acid, ammonium chloride, polyethylene polyamine-N-methylphosphonic acid and isopropyl intoxicant to forestall the precipitation of Ca carbonate within a long show operation from the well. The laboratory surveies of new inhibitor showed the developed inhibitor has a greater suppression efficaciousness and continuance of desorption in assessing with the tried out inhibitor SNPH-5312, which is widespread in the Fieldss in The ussr to forestall the anticipation of Ca carbonate.

The efficiency and corrosion aggressivity of new created inhibitor had been evaluated in three distinct man-made creation Waterss, which will contained numerous ion concentrations and were disposed to get precipitation of Ca carbonate.


Huge sums of H2O are injected into the reservoir to keep the reservoir force every unit area at the necessary degree, whereby, salt deposition occurs as a consequence of the H2O combination [ 1 ]#@@#@!. As the depletion with the oil discipline and its travel to the late phase of development with increasing high H2O lower Wellss, scaling job is aggravated. Besides, there is the with regard to backdown residuary oil, necessitating the usage of modern day engineerings to higher oil restoration, including physical and chemical exposure, which will besides energizes the deposition of debris. The chief grounds of deposition of debris are modifying of thermobaric conditions inside the procedure of production plus the mutual exclusiveness of injected and creation Waterss [ 2 ]#@@#@!.

Inorganic salts deposition within the interior surface area of oilfield equipment requires topographic reason for the procedure of field progress production of moire essential oil. Salt precipitation occurs in most operation ways of Wellss, however the most negative effects of running occur during oil creation by electric powered submergible sends ( ESPs ) [ a few ]#@@#@!. Intense deposition of Ca carbonate upon impellers ESP is due to the flow temp addition of produced liquids, which is caused by the heat emanation of runing the submergible motor. Along with sodium deposition in Wellss, extreme salt precipitation is observed in the wellspring, oil grapevine assemblage, metering devices and installations to get the readying of olive oil and besides in tank force per unit location care systems [ 4 ]#@@#@!.

The method of anticipation of California carbonate happens in three phases. In the first measure, ions of Ca match carbonate ions to organize the molecule. Pursuing, molecules incorporate in microcrystals that function as crystallisation organisations for the reminder of the solution. Amazingly aggregates expand and medicine or mounted on the walls of kit at selected sizes [ 5, 6 ]#@@#@!. Calcium supplement carbonate is found in the signifier of stable white crystals. Factors act uponing the formation of carbonate sedimentations include that formation H2O must be supersaturated with Ca, carbonate or hydrogen carbonate ions [ 7 ]#@@#@!.

Most control anatomist of grading is divided into bar and remotion of scaling. The most effectual method is chemical approach to bar by using scale blockers. Basic solutions of inhibitor injection will be divided the following: reagent taking into the wellbore and in to the formation. Medication dosage into the very well is completed by agencies of batcher dosing into the ring, into a given point over the capillary plus the periodic injections into the band through enthusiasts. Dose into formation is carried out through squashing scale inhibitor, injection by means of injection Wellss ( in force per device area care system ), add-on of inhibitor by simply proppant during fracturing ( ScaleProp ) and injection of the inhibitor with the fracturing fluid during fracturing ( ScaleFrac ) [ 8, being unfaithful ]#@@#@!.

The objective of this work is increasing of functional efficiency of bring forthing Wellss simply by bar of formation of Ca carbonate in the downhole equipment, using the developed inhibiting crafting.


In the conducted analysis lab tests for the readying of chemical alternatives was used unadulterated H2O, in connexion with necessity to extinguish the influence within the belongingss of the composing as well as the consequences of experiments of ion getting, which were contained in different refreshing H2O in assorted concentrations and proportions of their prevalent concentrations. Inside the readying of look intoing composing harmonizing to the required volume of the composing and concentrations of constituents, were weighed planned sum of H2O and reagents. Medical panpipes and high preciseness research research laboratory balances had been used for the precise values aˆ¹aˆ¹of the reagents multitudes.

Range inhibitor ought to be to the full appropriate for formation H2O without the anticipation formation although salvaging their very own belongingss [ twelve ]#@@#@!. For the analysis, man-made solution, the ionic creating of which is definitely near to the composing of formation H2O, is prepared. Inhibitory belongingss mostly depend on the information of California in the development Waterss. Therefore , the suitability standards can be that if perhaps in the readying of the inhibitor solutions inside the H2O having a certain content of Ca2+, turbidness is non observed inside 24 hours, the inhibitor for a given focus is considered appropriate for the offered H2O.

The prepared managed to graduate table inhibitor should be even more effectual and stable. The effectivity with the inhibitor is definitely evaluated simply by its effect on formation H2O or perhaps man-made theoretical account of H2O. Employing theoretical accounts provides excessive truth measurings [ 11 ]#@@#@!. Willpower of an inhibitor , h effectivity is created by appraisal of mass alteration of precipitation, which can be formed in mineralized WATER in the existence of inhibitor with regard to INGESTING WATER with no inhibitor [ 12 ]#@@#@!. Computation of the protective consequence of your inhibitor is carried out harmonizing to the equation:

At the % sama dengan? 100( 1 )

Wherever Tocopherol is a scale inhibitor efficiency, m0and m are definitely the multitudes of salt precipitate in the H2O with inhibitor and without inhibitor in gmc, severally.

The new graduated desk inhibitor must hold the low corrosiveness. Corrosiveness of the produced composing is evaluated through the mass loss of mention samples after all their submergence inside the inhibitor option. Corrosion aggressivity of reactants was examined by hydrometric method , the weight-loss of the examples. The corrosion rate of samples ( denseness of steel examples is 7821 kg.

You read ‘Prevention of Calcium supplements Carbonate Anticipation in Man-made Formation Waters’ in category ‘Essay examples’m-3) was determined from the formula:

Wattlevel Celsiuss=( 2 )

In which Vdegree Celsiussis a corrosion charge of the applied sample in mm/year, m1and m2are the mass of the material samples after and before the trial in gm, severally, S i9000 is the surface area country of samples in m2, t may be the trial cut in hr.

Scale blockers should keep good adsorption-desorption features, temperature opposition and minimum degree of toxicity [ 13 ]#@@#@!. Analysis of area assimilation and desorption capacity of controlling composing is conducted through research lab blocking of controlling solutions pertaining to nucleus examples. Filtration surveies of developed inhibitor about nucleus examples are looked into by utilizing the setup FDES-645 ( Formation Damage Analysis System ). Reservoir temperatures and pressure per device area circumstances are used when utilizing this kind of setup.

Result and treatment

The consequences of surveies to obtain the ionic crafting of the man-made formation Waterss are demonstrated in desk 1 .

Table 1 ) Characteristic of artificial formation Waterss


Man-made development H2O





6. 92

six. 34

7. 13

Denseness, kg. meters-3




Ion content material, mg/l

HCOthree or more




Carbon monoxide32-
























Entire blended salts, g/l

54. nineteen

60. 56

61. 98

Type of H2O harmonizing towards the Sulin , s program




Harmonizing to the categorization Sulin , s system, all man-made formation Waterss are a Ca chloride type. Sulin , s method is more detailed of commodity future trading formation Waterss than are definitely the other systems [ 16 ]#@@#@!. The entire mineralization of Waterss is located in the scope of 54 , 62 g/l. The assumptive accounts of H2O have big focus of hydrogen carbonate, carbonate and Ca ions, the chief element of development of Ca carbonate sodium in the WATER because development H2O has to be supersaturated with these ions to precipitate this salt [ 15 ]#@@#@!.

The developed creating of inhibitor is evaluated by seeking the residuary articles of scale inhibitors in samples of the liquid. The attention finding of P of inhibitor inside the formation INGESTING WATER is based on the response of phosphate ion with molybdate in acerb moderate [ 16 ]#@@#@!. The optical thickness ( optic denseness ) of the acquired solutions is definitely measured with a exposure tintometer at span? =540 nanometer in skin cells with a great absorbing pickup bed thickness of 30 millimeter. The optical denseness should certainly non transcend one. Control sample can be taken as a standard solution. Each sample is definitely measured about photoelectrocolorimeter twice or thrice, the arithmetic obtained beliefs are used for the result of measuring. Through the obtained annonces, a standardization curve is definitely plotted by utilizing on the horizontal axis the concentration of inhibitor in mg/l, and on the verticle with respect axis the magnitude of its complementing optical denseness. As proven in figure 1, the ensuing values of the optical concentration are correlated with the standardization graph and the concentration of inhibitor is found in the trial solution on account of the trials.

Figure 1 . The change in optic denseness with the solution, depending on content from the inhibitor in H2O

Evaluation of the efficiency action of graduated stand inhibitors by their ability to forestall the salt anticipation were accomplished in the water solution of artificial formation Waterss. Trials had been performed in a heat of 25? C in the exposure show of a day. The consequences are presented in table 2 .

Desk 2 . Analysis of the effectivity graduated stand inhibitors

Scale inhibitor figure

Chemical substance composing of graduated stand inhibitor

Scale suppression performance ( in 30 mg/l of inhibitor ), %


Second H2O

Third H2O


Oxiethilidendiphosphone acid 3 %, ammonium chloride 5 %, polyethylene polyamine-N-methylphosphonic acid 4 %, hydrochloric acid solution 10 %, isopropyl alcohol two %, H2O ” balance




a couple of

Oxiethilidendiphosphone acid solution 1 %, ammonium chloride 6 %, polyethylene polyamine-N-methylphosphonic acid 2 %, hydrochloric acid 5 %, isopropyl alcohol six %, WATER ” equilibrium




a few

SNPH-5312, the composite reagent of P




As shown in table two, the consequences of the experiment says the designed chemical composings have the necessary protective effect ( effectivity of more than 85 % ) for California carbonate in dosing rate of 35 mg/l. The inhibitor number 1 provides higher effectivity for club of Ca carbonate anticipation in all development Waterss. The between the blockers figure 1 and two is the change in mass fraction of inhibitor matters. Inhibitor SNPH-5312 is a great industrial inhibitor for tavern of Florida carbonate formation, which is used in oil discipline. This inhibitor is based on the composite reagent of P. Table two illustrates that SNPH-5312 can protect California carbonate creation up to 87 %.

Surveies have been executed to find the suitability of size inhibitors with the formation Waterss. All inhibitors were appropriate in three man-made formation Waterss, as well as the consequences showed all the above substance composing can be prepared in the formation Waterss.

The usage of chemical reagents pertaining to forestalling the deposition of salts in the Wellss can be associated with the usage of chemically extreme environments. A scale inhibitor is antioxydant if there is simply no opposing for the surface from the sample and corrosion price does non transcend zero. 1 millimeter /year. The caustic process of above managed to graduate table inhibitors was completed by hydrometric technique by utilizing metallic home angles through placing for 72 hours in 25? C.

Desk 3. Effects of übung of the corrosion rate of graduated stand inhibitors

Scale inhibitor

Test standing; permanence stability, hour

1st H2O

Second H2O

Third H2O

Mass decrease, g

Corrosion charge, mm/year

Mass decrease, g

Corrosion level, mm/year

Mass decrease, g

Corrosion price, mm/year



0. 0013

0. 0404

0. 0015

0. 0467

0. 0017

0. 0529



0. 0017

0. 0529

zero. 0019

zero. 0591

0. 0020

zero. 0622



zero. 0021

0. 0653

zero. 0021

zero. 0653

0. 0022

zero. 0684

Through the informations in table 3, it can be observed that all the above chemical composings showed an allowable corrosion rate ( less than zero. 1 mm/year ). Consequently , these reactants can be considered while reagents to forestall grading in Wellss.

The initial concentrations of the reagents in suppressing composings are different, and so it is possible to review the kineticss of the relative concentrations from the solutions. The used center samples got mean porousness of twenty % and permeableness of 70 mendeleviums. Figure a couple of shows the results of finding of the comparative concentrations of the inhibitor reagents inside the composings pertaining to the surface retention procedure by temperature of 120? C and power per unit area of three hundred standard pressure. Laboratory surveies showed which the confining surface assimilation is achieved once pumping 16 pore volumes for suppressing composings determine 1 and 2, for complete area assimilation of SNPH-5312, 12-15 pore quantities must be pumped. By assessing the comparative concentrations of reactants in physique 2 during surface retention, it can be concluded that the surface retention is faster when utilizing suppressing composings physique 1 and 2 . Harmonizing figure 2, more unvarying surface assimilation is observed in the composing figure 1 )

Figure 2 . Concentration alterations of the inhibitor solution inside the surface assimilation procedure inside the nucleus

After the nucleus left for 24 hours to obtain the surface retention equilibrium, formation H2O is pumped in the nucleus to displace suppressing composing. Implications of finding in the comparative concentrations of blockers are displayed during the desorption procedure in figure 3. The optimum and recommended concentration of oxiethilidendiphosphone acid inside the composing to get field circumstances, is 10 to 15 mg/l, this corresponds to reasonable concentration of 0. 0001. Harmonizing to figure 2, utilizing the inhibitor SNPH-5312 can easily supply the needed remotion of the inhibitor, which can be sufficient for effectual safety of precipitation of California carbonate, when ever pumping through the nucleus sample of 27 pore quantities of INGESTING WATER. Effective prevention of formation of Ca carbonate under related conditions continues in pumping 37 pore volumes of H2O when making use of the created suppressing composing figure one particular, and 32 pore quantities of INGESTING WATER by crafting figure 2 . This illustrates that the designed composing possess 1 . thirty seven times better continuance of desorption in comparing while using inhibitor SNPH-5312.

( a ) ( B )

Figure three or more. Concentration changing of the inhibitor solution in the desorption procedure on the center, ( a ) by 5 to 20 pore volumes of prints, ( N ) coming from 20 to 40

Data analysis upon remotion of considered repressive composings present that a important part of the free inhibitor ( non-adsorbed ) is exceeded in pumping the 1st two quantities of ouverture infinite. The efficiency with the developed creating is the result of the device of affect on the rock acidic additives belonging to the composing.


Inhibitory chemical composing was created for the bar of deposition of California carbonate with an optimum rate of constituent oxiethilidendiphosphone acid 3 %, ammonium chloride 4 %, polyethylene polyamine-N-methylphosphonic acid 4 %, hydrochloric acid 10 %, isopropyl liquor 2 %, H2O ” balance. The used graduated table inhibitor was examined in footings of effect on corrosion actions and it was inside the scope of 0. 040-0. 053 mm/year when the maximal allowable charge is zero. 1 mm/year. The new inhibitor was effectual for scale bar of Ca carbonate up to 80 %. Your research lab surveies showed which the developed composings have about 1 . 37 times for a longer time continuance in comparing while using desorption in the tried inhibitor SNPH-5312, which is widely used in the Fieldss pertaining to forestalling formation of Ca carbonate.


[ 1 ] Chunfang Fan, Amy Kan, Ping Zhang, Haiping Lu, Debbie Work, Jie Yu, Mason Tomson. Scale Prediction and Inhibition pertaining to Oil and Gas Creation at High Temperature/High Pressure. Society of Petroleum Technical engineers ( SPE ) 2012, 17 ( 2 ): 379-392. Department of the in house: 10. 2118/130690-PA

[ 2 ] T. Moghadasi, They would. Muller-Steinhagen, M. Jamialahmadia, A. Sharif, M. Model Analyze on the Dynamicss of Essential oil Field Development Damage Due to Salt Precipitation from Injection. Journal of Petroleum Technology and Anatomist 2004, 43 ( 3-4 ): 201″217. Department of the interior: 15. 1016/j. gasoline. 2004. 02. 014

[ several ] Neil Poynton, Alan Miller, Dmitry Konyukhov, Andre Leontieff, Ilgiz Ganiev, Alexander Voloshin. Squashing Size Inhibitors to Protect Electric Submersible Pumps in Highly Broken, Calcium Carbonate Scaling Reservoirs. Presented with the SPE Russian Oil and Gas Technical Conference and Exhibition28-30 August 2008, Moscow, Russia. ( in Russian ). Section of the home: 10. 2118/115195-RU

[ 4 ] Mackay EJ. Scale Inhibitor Program in Injections Wells against Damage to Creation Wells: When does it Work. Presented at SPE European Formation Damage Conference 25-27 Might 2005, Scheveningen, Netherlands. Office of the home: 10. 2118/95022-MS

[ 5 ] Mona El-Said, Mahmoud Ramzi, Thanaa Abdel-Moghny. Examination of oilfield Waterss simply by ion chromatography to find the crafting of range deposition. Desalination 2009, 249 ( two ): 748-756. Department of the interior: 12. 1016/j. desal. 2008. 12. 061

[ 6th ] Tomson, N. B., G. Fu, M. A. Watson, A. Big t. Kan. Components of nutrient scale suppression. Society of Petroleum Engineers ( SPE ) the year 2003, 18 ( 3 ): 192-199. Office of the in house: 10. 2118/84958-PA

[ 7 ] To. Kumar, T. Vishwanatham, S i9000. S. Kundu. A research research laboratory survey in pteroyl-l-glutamic acidity as a level bar inhibitor of California carbonate in aqueous solution of man-made created H2O. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 2010, 71 ( 1-2 ): 1-7. h DOI: 10. 1016/j. gasoline. 2009. eleven. 014

[ almost eight ] Khormali A, Petrakov Deb. Scale Inhibited and its Effectss on the Demulsification and Corrosion Inhibition. International Journal of Petroleum and Geoscience Anatomist 2014, 2 ( you ): 22-33.

[ 9 ] Olesya Vladimirovna Levanyuk, Alexander M. Overin, Almaz Sadykov, Sergey Parkhonyuk, Bernhard R. Lungwitz, Philippe Enkababian, Alexander Vladimirovich Klimov, Sergey Legeza. A 3-Year Effects of Software a Put together Scale Inhibition and Hydraulic Fracturing Treatment options utilizing a New Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid, Russia. Presented with the SPE Worldwide Conference and Exhibition in Oilfield Level 30″31 May 2012, Aberdeen, UK. Division of the home: 10. 2118/155243-MS

[ 10 ] Rich A. Dawe, Yuping Zhang. Dynamicss of Ca carbonate scaling utilizing observations via glass micromodels. Journal of Petroleum Science and Architectural 1997, 18 ( 3-4 ): 179-187. Department in the interior: 10. 1016/S0920-4105 ( 97 ) 00017-X

[ 10 ] Matty JM, Tomson MEGABYTES. Effect of multiple precipitation inhibitors on Los angeles carbonate nucleation. Applied Geochemistry 1988, several ( a few ): 549-556. Department of the interior: 15. 1016/0883-2927 ( 88 ) 90026-1

[ doze ] Drela We, Falewicz S, Kuczkowska S i9000. New rapid trial to get rating of scale inhibitors. Water Study 1998, thirty-two ( 10 ): 3188-3191. DOI: 10. 1016/S0043-1354 ( 98 ) 00066-9

[ 13 ] Ada Villafafila Garcia, Kaj Thomsen, Erling H. Stenby. Prediction of mineral managed to graduate table development in geothermic and oilfield operations utilizing the Extended UNIQUAC theoretical account: Portion II. Geothermics 2006, 35 ( a few ): 239-284. Department in the interior: 10. 1016/j. geothermics. 2006. 03. 001

[ 18 ] A. G. Ostroff, A comparison of Some Creation Water Classification Systems, AAPG bulletin American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1967, 51 ( three or more ): 404-416.

[ 15 ] Chen T, Neville A, Yuan M. Calcium mineral carbonate managed to graduate table formation”assessing the initial levels of precipitation and deposition. Journal of Petroleum Science and Executive 2005, 46 ( three or more ): 185-194. Department with the interior: 12. 1016/j. gasoline. 2004. doze. 004

[ 16 ] MacAdam J, Parsons SA. Calcium carbonate graduated table formation and control. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology 2005, 3 ( 2 ): 159-169. DOI: 10. 1007/s11157-004-3849-1

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