Girish Karnad’s use of folk forms is none casual nor incidental. In his Hayavadana, he has made progressive experiment to offer a new course to modern theatre. The dramatist features proved which the traditional forms need not end up being treated as precious artifacts, but can be adapted to treat modern designs suitable for the urban audience. This paper is an effort to portray how Karnad used the ancient story to explore the theme of human identity in a world of tangled interactions and challenging for excellence.
Girish Karnad, in Hayavadana, which usually won the Natya Sangh Best Perform Award in 1971, gives phrase to Of india imagination in the richest colours and deep meanings. As being a significant indicate of achievement Karnad makes bold innovations, productive experiments and new guidelines in the good Indian theatre. In Hayavadana, Karnad combines the traditional western techniques with Indian folks psyche, socio-cultural and political reality. The entire play is usually cast by means of traditional Of india folk theatre, which had taken several top features of ancient Sanskrit drama.
Karnad in Hayavadana attacks a significant take note by going through the dramatic potential of the historic Indian myths, legends and folk customs.
Girish Karnad’s Hayavadana is founded on Thomas Mann’s story entitled ‘Transposed Heads’, which in turn will be based upon one of the variations of the account in vetal panchavimshati. (The plays of Girish Karnad: The Development of Girish Karnad being a dramatist) Yet Karnad draws heavily about Thomas Mann’s story. In Hayavadana, Karnad wants to suggest to us that for us full Vikram’s option does not resolve the problem. Actually the real issue begins because it appears to be fixed. That could be the reason why he decreased the type of vetal panchavimshati, which will had the ‘incest’ designs. At the same time he makes significant departures from Thomas Mann’s story as well.
The sub-plot of Hayavadana is entirely different from Karnad’s invention. In the play the stories of the sub-plot through supports the main plot. Hayavadana is a great enigmatic play. Kirtinath Kurkkoti says, ‘Karnad’s playposes a different sort of problem, regarding human id in a world of tangled relationships’ (Contemporary Indian Drama 53). Another vit U. 3rd there’s r. Anantha Murthy in his A Note of Karnad’s Hayavadana, comments about theme just like incompleteness within a comic mode. ‘ Some paragraphs after he says, ‘The play attempts to create a great illusion in us that the head determines the staying of man’ (56).
Concurrently Shubhangi says that ‘completeness is a humanly impossible ideal as advised first inside the story of Hayavadana sometime later it was in the transposition of brain. Finally this individual achieves the aesthetic goal’ (The progress Girish Karnad as a Dramatist: Hayavadana). Anantha Murthy points out that Devadatta is the least ‘individuated’ personality. But this is explicable in terms of the thematic design of the play. (A Note in Karnad’s Hayavadana. Karnad Girish, three takes on Nagamandala Hayavadana, Tughlaq 93) Veena Rspectable Dass observes. ‘His discomfort is the agony of the specialist who is deeply aware of the sterility and horror that is life’ (Three Plays of Girish Karnad, 64). In Hayavadana, just as Shankuntalam and Mrichhakatikam the description of Padmini’s affinity with mother nature resonates with erotic emotion.
Hayavadana in exploring the world of love, Sensual man ” woman, Man bonding, Parent- child, gives us insight into the needs, hopes, fulfilment and stress it breeds. Karnad’s Bhagavata is the vermittler. He fulfils many functions in the play from being the key towards the play and a unattached observer towards the confidante with the heroine. The speeches of Bhagavata are resonant with image producing that at the outset build after the level of Hayavadana invokes a representational mode of projecting female body system as a sexualized object. Padmini’s presentation is through her changing situations from the physique of a divine beauty into a figure. In drawing Padmini, the playwright takes an irretrievably affected position of the man bound to patriarchal idea of womanhood and the process the play regains the ingredients of the court drama.
Karnad’s Padmini is not allowed to attain the greatness of Kalidasa’s Shakuntala who symbolizes the beliefs of not just a woman’s esteem for self confidence but who have also in her strength posits the truly great illustration in the maternity rule. Hayavadana can be resonant with multilayered interpersonal messages and in addition tempts us to see it as a volatile autonomous getting. Most experts have attempted to come to terms with the condition of ‘incompleteness’that the inconsistant situation as well as the personalities inside the play illustrate. Padmini’s free of charge floating volitional and risky consciousness requirements a perfect man for her. Hayavadana nonetheless makes us come across in Padmini a ‘Spirited’ ’embodied’ mind and more significantly illumines the notions of female subjectivity as embodied in her. Padmini is actually a transgressive lusty agency and a woman who wants to create a space beyond the pre-fabricated id.
In Action II of Hayavadana, the questions elevated ‘To to whom Padmini belongs’ could have been fixed. Padmini’s arrival drives in men the information of the agony of love. The mixed up mind create multiple problems seeing that Padmini as being a lawfully engaged wife need to go to Devadatta because like a mother the paternity of her kid is dependent upon whom she chooses as being a husband. The periods of bliss and delight with Kapila have to reach a state of denouement. Padmini would like to attain the union that allows a great undifferentiated unified body and mind. One could assume that Hayavadana’s aesthetic ” visionary wants to break the idea of the personality Padmini like a sexualized thing. In the body Karnad’s Padmini attempts the corporeal ground of her brains in her perennial pursuit of fulfilment.
Karnad, through the dilemma of the details reveals the ambiguous character of individual personality. Hayavadana, in many ways re-minds us of Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream. The moment Hayavadana starts, a cover up of Ganesha is brought on the level and the Bhagavata sings about the Lord that is the Expert of success and excellence. Naik, Meters. K. observes Padmini’s inability of the endeavors and feedback: ‘Padmini’s predicament suggests woman’s vain make an attempt to unite man as intelligence and as skin in order to even more her imaginative purpose. Require two facets of the manly personality will be basically in war together and hence the attempt ends disastrously in destruction to get woman and man. Incorporation cannot be obtained b looking to reconcile yet by receiving cheerfully the fundamental disharmony in human life’. (Dimensions of India The english language Literature, 85)
Sharma and Anantha Murthy also admit Karnad fails to identity like a modern Of india dramatist as they confused the group for a few mere seconds in Work II. Vinod. V. N. remarks regarding the second trend of seeking in Padmini, when Padmini sends Devadatta for a good and would go to the forest in order to satisfy Kapila. Kapila does notwant her entrance first. Right now there arise a lot of ‘why’? Inquiries in a series. Karnad remarks that people happen to be satisfied with questions and they do not bother very much about in search of answer for their questions.
Karnad tries to understand the answer for several unknown inquiries, despite the physical identity problems and the perception of hysteria. Hayavadana appears to be superior to each of the major and minor personas in the perform. Horse mind appears to represent plain good sense and with the blessings of Kali he is converted into a full horses. By a peculiar coincidence, he meets Padmini’s son by the end of the play. It is during his amusing meeting with the little son that Hayavadana loses his voice and starts neighing. The completeness of a horses is gained and paradox is revealed through the perform successfully.
The play attracts our awareness of the thought-provoking question ” what establishes one’s personality? Is it face beauty and intelligence, or strength and physical ability? Devadutta and Kapila will be these two characteristics personified respectively. Nevertheless, both are envisaged only since complementary agencies -Lava and Kusha, Ramo and Lakshmana, Krishna and Balarama-and are not treated as being a unified entity.
Ever since occasions immemorial, your head has received predominance above the body. The Bhagavata, the omniscient narrator, himself reports that the mind defines the identity of the man. Actually, we find which the Bhagavata himself reverses precisely the same when he address Hayavadana inside the first section of the play since ‘poor man’, even though Hayavadana possesses your head of a horses. If the words of the Bhagavata declares that the head is definitely supreme, the tale of Hayavadana seems to indicate that the person is superlative. The prince manipulating the horse indicates the head, and the horse might signify your body. Contrary to the two of these, the main plan shuttles between the priority in the head plus the body.
Previous, if Ganesha was the husband of Siddhi and Riddhi, Padmini is definitely the lover of intelligence and strength. However, in her case this fails to amount to a unified whole; the girl with caught between association with two personas, and this brings about a split in her identity. The mental imbalance is plainly explicit inside the provocative symbolism that shows heras a female bathing in the blood in the two guys. The female protagonist is a schizophrenic individual trapped between two worlds. This becomes acted in the doorframe of her house which has on it the engraving of your two-headed bird. A chicken instantly suggests a female. Having two brain its, its individuality can not remain in sincerity as one mind will always strive to assert brilliance over the additional. Kapila happens the blend when he says: “A proper two-headed fowl. But it is very tiny you can’t see it in any way unless you are able to tear the eyes staring at it. (87)
This kind of phenomenon is definitely purely emotional. Padmini can be legally wedded to Devadutta out of her desire for fair appears and intellect; and interested in Kapila for his physical elegance and manual efficiency. P. Dhanavel claims that the flourishing camaraderie between Kapila and Padmini leads to the acute turmoil of personality in Padmini herself states that the music: ‘Is this place that / Or that a person this? ‘ points to her autobiography. Once Padmini visualizes Kapila being released on the during their visit to forest the lady loses her sense of propriety and herself splits. The Bhagavata simultaneously mélodies: ‘And your head is putting in a bid good-bye towards the heart. ‘(95) She relegates Devadutta for the background and gets preoccupied with Kapila: ‘And what an ethereal condition. ‘
Therefore, when she comprehends that Devadutta and Kapila possess committed suicide, she loses her feeling of percentage. For her lifestyle, her id is deeply entangled with any of the two. Ironically, she either manages to lose both or acquires affiliation with the two leading to a great onset of neurosis. She retorts to the Empress Kali: “If you’d kept either of which, I would have been completely spared this all terror, this agony. (102)
Her constant existence depends on the presence of either of these. Eventually, your woman finds himself in intense euphoria when ever she combines the head of Devadutta as well as the body of Kapila. This union implies and represents her temporary stability. Padmini wants to acquire something over and above an earthly concept which she phone calls the perfect combination: ‘ My personal celestial-bodied Gandharva. (111)’ In contrast, the princess of Karnataka seems more down to earth’, literally and metaphorically, because she ventures on protecting anearthly becoming and rejecting a celestial being. Her temporal constancy enables her to react like a regular human being. Nevertheless , even for the reason that state of condition, there are traces of her earlier self in consoling Kapila.
The realization of the break up reaches their saturation level when Devadutta and Kapila meet the other person in total honesty at the end of the enjoy. Padmini comprehends that the two cannot co-exist within her at the same time. She says in pg. 130 that she recognized it in her blood vessels that they equally could not include lived jointly, because they’d to share not simply her body system but talk about theirs’ too.
KAPILA: Devadutta, couldn’t many of us live collectively like the Pandavas and Draupadi.
DEVADUTTA: So what do you think?
KAPILA: No this cannot be done. (129)
Eventually, we find the Bhagavata showing the fracture in Padmini’s self in emblematic terms:
After sharing with Indra
His wine beverage
My spouse and i returned towards the earth
and observed from far-
a crack acquired appeared
in the earth’s face-
exactly like Indra’s smile. (129)
The only strategy to this is the exorcising of the ghosts of Kapila and Devadutta, and in turn committing suicide for Padmini. The playwright achieves this kind of in a impressive metaphor. Because the two slay each other, Padmini jumps into the funeral pyre in the ritual of Sati. As their combat is stylized like a boogie, Padmini’s response is also by means of a dance synchronizing with all the former. In expressionistic conditions, this dance is exemplary to Padmini’s identity problems.
At an additional level, Kapila and Devadutta get into a situation of identity crisis when ever their brain get transposed. The Bhagavata in his omnipotent authority enables the head to get precedence and christens all of them Devadutta and Kapila matching to their mind. Devadutta likewise refers to the shastras and says that the head is a sign of any man. Nevertheless, one cannot fail to perceive the influence of the bodies on the two. Like hardly ever before, the dull-witted Kapila becomes rational and persuasive in his disputes:
This is the palm that accepted her at the wedding. This can be a body she’s lived with all these months. And the she is carrying is definitely the seed of the body. (106)
And in Devadutta we notice a kind of assault in terminology and actions.
DEVADUTTA (pushing Kapila aside): Get away, you pig. (107)
Devadutta reveals to have defeated a champ wrestler and sword-fighter simply because his body system had inspired’ him. This individual avows that his human body ‘doesn’t wait for thoughts-it just acts! ‘ (113) At any rate, this is only a passing sensation of stability, and ultimately the body adapts itself for the head. Padmini summarizes the gist in the play when she explains to Kapila:
The top always wins, doesn’t it? (55)
Metaphorically applied this idea can easily always apply to any program also, whether it be social, economic or political. The head of your system often dominates over the system due to its smooth operating. This is often the case of course, if the system almost never renders on its own stronger, then the head is usually overthrown.
Consequently as long as they co-exist the head is always remarkable. A stable relationship is certainly not something consistent and always is still a utopian paradigm in our imagination.
As for the personality of the kid, it is still shrouded in mystery. It probably compares to a representative from the next generation in that it continues to be indifferent to the system or reacts violently to the same. The child biologically belongs to Devadutta’s head and Devadutta’s body system; however , it exhibits features of Kapila in its violence and unintelligible activities. The mole of Kapila remains to be, on his shoulder joint as his identity. The entire body reigns supreme here.
To hat it all, Padmini prefers Kapila over Devadutta; the body in the head at every instance. Your woman utters the name of Kapila ahead of Devadutta often (101, 104). And the kid favours the horse more than human; body instinct over human brains yet again. This kind of becomes Karnad’s primary motive in writing the play, to ponder upon the significance of the body in one’s id and hence reverses the dichotomy head/body in the title Hayavadana where haya stands for horse/body and vadana for man/head. N. S.
Ashley states that the concentrate on the body governs the characterization of the two male character types. Since they have inanimate, static faces (masks), body language turns into the unsecured personal of their style. The main reason intended for the title Hayavadana is that Hayavadana is more complete than the other main characters Devadutta, Kapila and Padmini. And more significantly, he is total, because towards end, dr. murphy is the only individual who is satisfied! Getting complete/incomplete is only a matter of your respective own understanding; else, how could the animal-headed Ganesha be regarded supreme and the animal headed Hayavadana be named incomplete.
Besides, the man/body dichotomy also relates to the dialectic pair man/woman. Based on the Semitic religions of the world, woman is said to be made of the ribs of gentleman. Karnad appears to question this kind of theory as well. Besides, by simply presenting a white Devadutta, and a black Kapila, Karnad likewise appears to treat hidden daily activities and concerns of racism. Critics just like Erin W. Mee stress: ‘Hayavadana displays the divided self of thepostcolonial subject matter, he is also an example of the failure to deal successfully with that condition: he survives by killing one aspect of himself. ‘ Does the body seriously depend on your head? By depending upon bodily instincts, isn’t this better to go beyond back to primitivism than are in this establishing and manipulative era by aid from the brain? Which will holds an improved identity just for this? These are points to ponder upon.
You may also be interested in the following: nagamandala by girish karnad brief summary, thesis of nagamandala by girish karnad, nagamandala topics, nagamandala by girish karnad, nagamandala