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Real estate market in hong kong dissertation


Hk has established the real estate markets since 1841, because it became a colony from the British Empire following your First Opium War. As a small city with simply an area of 1, 104 rectangular km, but over six millions of people, Hong Kong has one of the prosperous real estate markets and which has created a huge amount of wealth.

In respect to Forbes list of Hk billionaires 2012, the top three or more richest people and 8 out of top eleven richest persons in Hong Kong are came from real estate industry.

Nowadays, Hong Kong has the 3rd-most expensive property in the world, with an average rectangular meter per unit charges of US $20, 371, in back of only Monaco and Birmingham, according to analyze of Global Property Guide.

Bottom on the 2011 census, Hk has mainly three different kinds of flats, about 30% human population are living in public rental housing, around 18% population are living in backed sale flat, around fifty percent are in private enclosure, and outstanding 2% surviving in other kinds of housing.

Background and history of Hong Kong Property Markets

Ahead of 1949, early stage of Hong Kong home market

Began from 1841, the nest of Hk has get a regional center for doing re-exports businesses and trading with landmass China. Yet , due to the population size of Hk was not that large prior to the Second World War, the home market was not very successful at that time.

1949 ” 1980, China’s close door period

Until 1949, because of the institution of the Someones Republic of China (PRC) and the fairly political unstable in mainland, millions of Oriental people have moved to Hong Kong. Some were internet marketers from Shanghai, some had been well-trained professionals, and some were labor who are able to provide gentleman power to Hong Kong industrialization. As a result of sudden influx of inhabitants and huge capital inflow, the demand on the Hk properties has grown significantly. Even though there were several fluctuations around the price level during 49 to 1982, say, 1970s oil problems, but in the 30 years of China’s close door policy, Hong Kong contains a significant increase on house price levels.

1981 ” 1984, Property Catastrophe due to the issue of Hong Kong’s sovereignty Due to the procedure of 1997, Chinese govt started the discussion of the concern of Hong Kong’s sovereignty with Uk government since 1981, due to uncertainty from the “1997 problem, a lot of people kept Hong Kong and migrated to Canada, UK, Australia or perhaps New Zealand. Due to the deficiency of confidence towards the future and unstable personal environment, the property price provides dropped by 60% inside the period of 81 to 1984.

1984 ” 1997, Real estate Market Bubble

In 1984, The Sino-British Joint Statement was agreed upon by Mister. Zhao Ziyang, the prime ressortchef (umgangssprachlich) of PRC and Ms. Margaret Thatcher, Prime ressortchef (umgangssprachlich) of UK. In the statement, “One region, two systems principle was agreed between UK plus the PRC. The socialist system of PRC will not be applied in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), and Hong Kong’s earlier capitalist system and its life-style would stay unchanged for a period of 5 decades until 2047. The Joint Declaration gives that these basic policies should be stipulated in the Hong Kong Simple Law and that the socialist system and socialist policies shall not be practiced in HKSAR. The stabilized political situation has regained the confident of Hk people, and even more people were willing to invest in Hong Kong.

Most importantly, inside the Joint Announcement the Chinese language and English governments arranged that the English Hong Kong federal government would just sell no greater than 50 hectares a year as 1984 to 1997 (excluding land to become granted to the Hong Kong Housing Authority intended for public local rental housing). It has capped the supply of real estate in Hong Kong. Started coming from 1990s, Hong Kong has became an international finance center, main working populace has altered from playing secondary sector into tertiary industry, just like financial services, trading etc, as well as more and more international companies, including investment financial institutions, MNCs, arrived Hong Kong and place up their particular offices, which usually boosted up the demand of Hong Kong properties. Because of the significant increment on demand, but capped source by the joint agreement among PRC and UK governments, Hong Kong house prices went through the roof before the burst of bubble in 1997.

97 ” the year 2003, Asian financial disaster and HKSAR government’s real estate policy Following the transfer of sovereignty above Hong Kong through the United Kingdom to China in 1997, as a result of high home prices, a lot of interpersonal problems had been caused, for example , new years felt challenging to purchase a smooth. The 1st Chief Executive of HKSAR, Mr. Tung Chee-hua decided the fact that government ought to increase supply to control property rates. He suggested to supply eighty five, 000 devices of home housing (including private and public sector) every year to curb prices. With government’s push on building more apartments, the exclusive sector casing completion flower from 15, 000 products in 97 to common 20, 1000 units to get six years from 98 to the year 2003, and come to over 35, 000 it happened in 1999 and 2002.

It was certainly not until the year 2003 when the federal government decided to keep the property marketplace to their own device. However , at the same time because Hong Kong’s return to China, the Oriental financial crisis were only available in Thailand has spread to Hk, economy which include property market segments has injure significantly by the slump. As a result of both improved housing source and financial meltdown, the property bubble went bust, the real house prices lowered by more than 40% in 1998, returning to all their levels in the early nineties. Residential property rent also droped, by 30% in actual terms during the same period. Both have recently been weakened even more in the last mentioned part of 2k after the bust of IT bubble.

Hong Kong Census and Figures Department, highlighting the weak point of the marketplace, the deal volume also dropped dramatically, with the quantity of sale and purchase agreements falling from over 200, 1000 in 97 to below 86, 500 in 2150. Reflecting the decline in the property selling price, net real estate equity inside the private non commercial sector is usually estimated to acquire dropped by simply 53% coming from HK$3. six trillion in 1997 to HK$1. almost 8 trillion in 2000. Being a ratio to nominal GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT, net housing wealth fallen from 2 . 8 instances GDP in 1997 to 1. 4 in 2000, to the level in the early nineties. For some homeowners, the fall in property rates has resulted in the value of their very own properties falling below the size of their outstanding mortgages, which we referred to as the “negative equity. Bad equity has become a special and significant aspect affecting the effect of real estate price improvements on the remaining portion of the economy.

After 2003, shortage of supply

Hk SAR’s house prices overturn and started to grow swiftly since 2003. Since the authorities has chosen to leave the home market with their own unit in the year 2003, compare to common over 20, 1000 units of recent private apartments being created every year just before 2003, an annual average of only 13, 000 fresh private household units had been constructed from 2005 to 2012. At the same time, the supply of public housing units (including Community Rental Housing and Possessing Scheme units) has fallen even crisper than regarding private residential units. Among 1997 and 2003, an average of 43, 000 public enclosure units was built yearly.

However , following 2003, the figure provides slipped to less than sixteen, 000 units per annum. Alternatively, between 2005 and 2011, Hong Kong signed up an average of 49, 000 partnerships per year, in respect to Hk Census and Statistics Section. This equals 49, 1000 couples rivalling for 30, 000 residential units annually from 2003 to 2012. Therefore , casing price level, meanwhile, grew 182% during this time period.

Importance of house markets to Hong Kong

The home market performs an important function in the Hong Kong economy. Enclosure is the most important kind of savings for most households, a significant drop in housing prices, for example the 1997 property crisis, the along with property rates has triggered the value of their properties dropping below the size of their spectacular mortgages ” the problem of negative collateral, this would additional cause economic problems in areas apart from housing sector. In the financial sector, at the moment about half of domestic credit comprises mortgage loans for the purchase of private residential properties and loans to get building and construction, house development and investment.

Changes in property prices and rental prices influence client price pumpiing, and affect Hong Kong’s competitiveness. To government income, land product sales and stamps duties upon property ventures have also been a significant source of income, which contributed around 25% of total government’s revenue. The reason behind Hong Kong’s low tax charge is because a huge part of government’s expenditure can be supported by income from property related income. Considered the importance of property market segments to Hong Kong economy, a tremendous fall in real estate price level would result in a huge effect to Hong Kong’s monetary structure.

Rates of interest and Hong Kong’s linked exchange price

As a response to the Dark-colored Saturday turmoil in 1983, the linked exchange price system was adopted in Hong Kong on October 17, 1983 through the currency table system. A linked exchange rate strategy is a type of exchange rate program to link the exchange rate of your currency to a different. It is the exchange rate system implemented in Hong Kong to stabilize the exchange charge between the Hong Kong dollar (HKD) and the United States dollar (USD).

According to Paul 3rd there’s r. Krugman’s “The Impossible Trinity theory, in the international economics, it can in maximum just fulfill two out of three followings at the same time: a set exchange charge, free capital movement, persistent monetary plan. Since Hong Kong has a fixed exchange price between HKD and UNITED STATES DOLLAR, and also a free of charge capital marketplace, as a result, it is obliged to import monetary policy in the US, and adjust the interest rates, which includes mortgage rate of interest, according to US Fed’s decision.

Forecast of Hong Kong property rates

Demand and provide

As mentioned recently, from 2004 to 2012, there were typical 49, 500 marriages annually. We assume that number of matrimony represents the necessity of real estate, and also believe the number of matrimony each year might remain frequent in approaching five to ten years. Alternatively, the supply of housing in coming five years is usually estimated to become around thirty-five, 000 fresh flats each year, which includes 12-15, 000 public housing yearly, (according to government insurance plan address issued on of sixteen Jan 2013), and about 20, 1000 private casing every year, (according to the market estimation). This implies the demand of housing continues to be exceed the provision in future five years.

Inexpensive of capital

Secondly, as a result of fixed exchange rate between HKD and USD, Hk should continue to keep its interest in line with ALL OF US, as ALL OF US has applied QE to improve its economic system, therefore , the expense of capital, which can be the essential part of home loan borrowing, could remain suprisingly low at least in approaching two years. Finally, according to

Health mortgage loan structure

In respect to Hk Monetary Expert (HKMA), Quarterly Bulletin, Hk retail banks’ overall loan-to-deposit ratio was 55. 0% at the end of September, which is very low compare to the physique as by 1997, that was about 150%. Also, the credit quality of HKMA surveyed institutions’ residential mortgage loan lending always been sound, with delinquency percentage continuing to hover by 0. 01% at the end of the third one fourth 2012. With higher house prices, the surveyed establishments did not survey any home mortgage loans in negative fairness at the end of the third 1 / 4 2012. Furthermore, base about Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department, on average, the mortgage loan repayment showed 25% to 30% of household income, which is still in a health selection.

Potential buyers from mainland Cina

With the monetary growth of landmass China, a growing number of billionaires from mainland are interested to buying house in Hk. According to the review conducted by simply Centraline Property, the largest home agent in Hong Kong, landmass customers offered 10% in the total property transactions, plus they were really interested in luxurious housing, and it is expected the number of mainland consumers will additional increase in arriving few years.


Consider the factor of demand and supply, low interest rate, mortgage condition and foreseeable future extra demand from landmass customers, it is expected the exact property price level in Hk would nonetheless remain for a high level in coming years.


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Category: Essay,

Topic: Exchange rate, Hong Kong, Real estate,

Words: 2146

Published: 03.25.20

Views: 251

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