William J. T. Gordon & George Royal prince developed the synectics approach to problem solving in 1960. They observed that business meetings got inconsistent effects. After hours of studying tags from meetings, they identified the success factor to be free-form brainstorming. This brainstorming process in an open, nonjudgmental climate associated with analogies and metaphors led to more imagination and advancement. Gordon afterwards adapted synectics for classroom use.
Orientation of Synectics
Gordon centered synectics on the concept that traditional thought should be challenged. His theory is based on several goals and assumptions that revolve around creativity.
Creativity is important in the find solutions to problems process, creativity is not really mysterious, imaginative invention is similar in all fields, and person & group invention are similar. The synectics approach is founded on the mindset of this creativeness. Creative capacities can be developed; creativity can be an mental process that aids intellectual processes, and understanding the reasonless aids in problem solving success. Synectics incorporates metaphors and analogies to promote creativeness.
Immediate analogies derive from the a comparison of seemingly unrelated topics, tips, objects, and so forth Personal analogies enhance understanding when the player is asked to get the topic, idea, object, etc .
Compress conflict is the comparison of opposing claims or terms. A full synectics approach could include a step-by-step process employing each of these analogie in a particular pattern. Yet , some lessons objectives or time frames do not need or enable full synectics. In these cases, stretching exercises may be used. Flexibility exercises use the metaphoric activities independently or together. For example , an organization involved in athletic shoe style may focus on the personal analogy (Imagine your self as a athletic shoes. ) to build new style ideas. They may or may not be used in relation to particular problem solving concerns. A educator may wish to just stimulate scholar thinking at the beginning of class.
Areas of Teaching Synectics
With synectics, the tutor becomes the facilitator. Proficiency in this process by the instructor is essential. Students experience intrinsic benefits through pleasure and satisfaction in leading and learning from the activity. Instructors and college students must do not forget that all concepts, regardless of how far-fetched or outrageous they may appear, must be accepted. Non-judgment is key to achievement in this procedure. Teachers must guide students away from making premature examination for the condition being resolved. Synectics works extremely well across the subjects or within interdisciplinary learning. Applications will be numerous and can include creative publishing, exploring interpersonal problems, problem solver, creating a design or item, and medical investigations.
Other academic benefits include increasing concept viewpoints and understanding, correcting myths, and generalizing learning. The synectics method is both instructional and nurturing to its members. Instructional results include promo of combination and output in the classroom, development of tools to get metaphoric thinking, and elevated problem solving features. Nurturant effects include development of positive self-pride in college students, increased risk-taking by participants, and larger achievement of curricular articles.
General Guidelines for Synectics
Regardless of whether the entire synectics version, stretching exercises, or maybe a modified type of the style is used, you will find general rules for the teacher to ensure success of the method. The class room environment should certainly promote feelings of assistance, openness to express one’s view and check out new tips, be non-judgmental in nature, and create class and group discussion posts. Graphic planners may be used together with synectics to market learning and understanding. Synectics can be examined through conversation, graphic coordinators, projects, composing, etc . To get most advantageous, the method should be implemented daily in a few form. Variety creates an optimal environment for synectics. Teachers must ensure that college student groups consist of learners with varying backgrounds/experiences, academic talents, and different knowledge bases. The teacher/facilitator is always to monitor the method not this article. Thinking skills developed through teacher monitoring and contribution in the process will be metaphors, analogie, comparing, contrasting, analysis, and evaluation.
Benefits associated with Synectics
Synectics can be found stiched throughout the learning theories. The method can be linked to multiple intelligences/learning styles, technology in the classroom, creative imagination in learning, crucial thinking and higher order thinking, metacognition and reflection, and brain analysis and learning. Synectics likewise overlaps many other effective teaching models and strategies. Synectics shares many of the benefits likewise exhibited by direct teaching, concept development, casual-effect, and creative problem solver, inductive thinking, memorization, case study, classroom conversation, and group investigation. Benefits include, tend to be not limited to: *
2. increased understanding about a particular topic or perhaps issue
* boosts ability to apply knowledge
* adjustable to a various teaching/learning conditions
* teacher becomes facilitator
* learners discover what they will already know
* fosters new ideas
* divergent pondering & solving problems skills elevated
* promotes collaborative work, research skills, & camaraderie
* helps you to jump start the creative process
* promotes positive youth advancement
5. promotes creative imagination
5. can be used to get social-emotional lessons
* redefines writing process
* new insights into otherwise monotonous or unpleasant topics
* helps in retention of new information
* is exploring social & disciplinary complications
2. internalizes abstract concepts
* increased language purchase
* provides a THREE DIMENSIONAL view from the problem
* helps bring about empathy
* used to overcome mental blocks
* works best with a diverse group of learners
* promotes totally free thinking
* new & astonishing solutions to problems
5. mobilizes both equally sides of the head
* furnishes (new) insight into problem solver
* all ideas have some good qualities
* aids scholars in finding new approaches & alternative opinions to find solutions to problems
* aids in drawing relevant cable connections between apparently unrelated idea
Drawbacks of Synectics
As all learning theories and teaching designs are not with no fault, synectics is found to contain several drawbacks too. Pitfalls to synectics incorporate, but is probably not limited to:
5. more challenging than idea
* involves multiple steps
* procedure can be difficult
2. process can be cumbersome
* requires more time than other brainstorming procedures
5. requires more effort than other processes
Synectics can be used in three ways: to help make the strange familiar, to make the familiar strange, and also to create something totally new. Making the strange familiar and creating something new would be the most common classroom uses of synectics. All three formats are incredibly similar, made up of much overlap. It is the job of the facilitator to determine the preferred outcome. Step one ” Explain the Topic: The facilitator selects a word or topic then simply asks learners to describe the topic. Brainstorming a directory of descriptors through class or perhaps small group debate or by individually producing a paragraph are the most popular methods. 2 ” Produce Direct Analogies: The facilitator selects another word or perhaps topic after that asks the students to generate a list that would have the same characteristics since those words and phrases or phrases listed in Step one. Ask them to create vivid mental images.
Mental images are powerful tools in the process. (How are a shrub and a machine similar? ) 3 ” Explain Personal Analogies: Have learners select one of the direct analogie and create personal analogies. Students “become the object that they choose after which describe what feels like to become that object. (What wouldn’t it feel like to be a bulldozer? ) Step 4 ” Identify Pressurized Conflicts: Inquire the students to pair terms from the list generated in Step 3 which seem to battle each other. Always have the students clarify why they will chose the words which turmoil.
Then have students select one by voting. (How can be an Oak Tree the two majestic and weak? ) Step 5 ” Create a New Direct Example: With the compressed conflict match voted after by the college students, ask them to produce a different immediate analogy by selecting something that can be described by the paired words and phrases. Ask the students to choose the ‘best’ one. Step six ” Reexamine the Original Topic: Return to the original idea or problem so the student might produce a merchandise or information that utilizes the ideas generated in the process. They may concentrate on a final analogy or use analogies created inside the other several steps.