Ahead of the arrival from the Spanish colonizers in the Israel in the 16th century, the Barangays were well-organized 3rd party villages – and in some cases, multicultural sovereign principalities, which performed much such as a city-state. The Barangay was the dominant organizational pattern between indigenous residential areas in the Philippine archipelago. The name barangay originated from balangay, a Malay word that means “sailboat”. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barangay_(pre-colonial) h
The Hierarchy of Leadership in Ancient Philippines…
The political good the Philippines begins clearly from the development of various ethno-linguistic groups with distinct territorial imperatives and traditions.
The political program revolved around a kinship-based electric power or impact hierarchy went by a leader called Mampus or Mapalon among the Ivatan, Mabacnang or “Amaen usted ili” among the list of Ilocano, Apo among the Igorot, Benganganat among the list of Ilongot, Mingal among the Gaddang, Gator Lakan among the Tagalog, Rajah among the list of Bisayan, Timuay among the Subanun, Datu among the Lumad and Muslim of Mindanao, and Nakurah among the list of Sama.
Your head was named datu the chief executive, legislator, judge and military commander. He made regulations, enforced them and judged all instances and studies brought by the villagers. Yet , he had a council of elders who also assisted him in his government. A person could get a datu through inheritance, riches, wisdom and bravery.
The written laws were enacted by the datu and authorities of parents. A community crier called umalohokan announced the regulations to the people. The contents of ancient laws and regulations involved relatives relations, real estate rights, home affairs, gift of money, marriage disputes, murder and business concerns. Punishment to get serious criminal offenses was death, slavery or perhaps heavy penalties. Minor criminal offenses were penalized through with exposure to ants, long hours of swimming, to whip or aigu?. http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_ancient_in_Philippine_society
Followers of the datu are along referred to as sandig sa datu (“beside the datu”). The primary minister or privy counselor of the datu was referred to as atubang social fear datu(literally “facing the datu”). The steward who collected and documented tributes and taxes and dispensed them among the home and household of the datu was known as the paragahin. The paragahin was also responsible for organizing community feasts and communal work. The bilanggo was the one responsible for retaining law and order and whose own house offered as the community jail (bilanggowan) Social Classes
In Luzon (Katagalugan Region)…
The ancient Filipinos were broken into social classes. These were producing of the Nobles, the Freemen, and the Household.
The nobles or Maginoo, composed of the chiefs and their people, were the early upper class. We were holding highly well known in their community. In the Tagalog region, the nobles usually carried the title of Gat or Lakan.
Next to the nobles were the freemen or Maharlika in Tagalog, Cebuanos, Hilagaynons, and Ilokanos, who may be regarded as the society’s middle section class during the ancient length of the Filipino History. they were born totally free individuals or perhaps emancipated slaves; and so had been their children. They owned their particular houses, area, and other pieces of property. These were warriors, artists, craftsmen, farmers, and hunters. They accompanied the datu when he went to war and hunting trips. The people of the cheapest class were the household called Alipin among the historic Tagalog.
Ways to become a great Alipin
The low interpersonal status from the dependent was acquired:
By captivity in the struggle
By failing to pay one’s debt
By gift of money
Simply by purchase
Or because they are pronounced guilty of a crime.
Among the Tagalogs, the dependents were grouped into Aliping namamahay and Aliping sagigilid. The namamahay had his own property and friends and family. He serves his
master simply by planting and harvesting his master’s crops, by drinking juices the master’s boat, and helping inside the construction of the master’s residence. On the other hand, the sagigilid acquired no property of his own, he lived together with his master, and may not marry without the latter’s consent. In Visayas …
In more designed Barangays in Visayas, the social buy was split up into three classes. These are the Tumao course, Timawa, Oripun class.
The people of the Tumao class (which includes the datu) had been the the aristocracy of natural royal descent, The tumao consisted of blood relatives from the datu (community leader) untainted by slavery, servitude, or witchcraft. They were usually descendants of the kids of a datu and extra wives generally known as sandal.
The Timawa (Spanish: Timagua) had been the se?orial warrior category of the ancient Visayan societies of the Israel. The timawa class enjoyed their rights to a area of the barangay land. Their normal accountability was farming labor but they also called to catch fish, to go along with expedition or paddles vessels. They were also called as out for abnormal services like supporting feasts and building houses.
Under the timawa had been the Oripun class (commoners and slaves), who delivered services towards the tumao and timawa pertaining to debts or perhaps favors. Among the Visayans, the Oripun were of three kinds: the Tumataban, who have worked for his grasp, when advised to do so; the Tumarampuk, whom worked one day a week to get his learn; and the Ayuey, who performed three days and nights a week intended for his grasp. http://www.philippinealmanac.com/history/the-social-classes-of-the-ancient-philippine-society-543.html Philippine History simply by M. C Halili pp. 56-57
Lifestyle and World
Throughout the pre-colonial time there was already an indigenous spiritual practices practiced by the people inside the Philippines. In Politics…
The form of government during the precolonial period was the barangay. A barangay was ordinarily made up of 30 to 100 people and was based on kinship. Most of the barangays were located along the shoreline but some were located over the plains, rolling hills, or around bodies of water. Every barangay had it’s very own chief who also served while it’s political leader; a spiritual leader; who was usually a woman; and an economic leader, generally a blacksmith, who constructed all the steel tools in the community. The political leader was also the military head whose work is to maintain peace and order in the barangay. http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_history_of_ancient_filipino’s_Government_system In Religion
During the pre-colonial time there were already an indigenous spiritual traditions utilized by the people in the Thailand. Generally, intended for lack of better terminology prehistoric people are referred to to be animistic. Their practice was a assortment of beliefs and cultural mores anchored inside the idea that the earth is lived on by mood and supernatural entities, both equally good and bad, and this respect become accorded to them through nature worship thus; they believed that their daily lives contains a connection of such morals.
These mood are considered to be the anito or diwata that they thought to be good and bad. The great spirits were considered as all their relatives and the bad had been believed to be all their enemies. Several worship certain deities just like Bathala a supreme god for the Tagalog, Laon or Abba for the Visayan, Ikasi of Zambal, Gugurang intended for the people of Bicol and Kabunian of Ilocano and Ifugao. Apart from those substantial deities in addition they worship various other gods just like Idialao while god of farming, Lalaon of pick, Balangay our god of rainbow and Sidapa god of death.
http://www.slideshare.net/janinademetria/pre-colonialperiod#btnNext Religion in the rules of the Babaylan
Babaylan is a Visayan term identifying an indigenous Filipino faith based leader, who also functions being a healer, a shaman, a seer and a community “miracle-worker” (or a mixture of any of those). The babaylan can be man, female, or male transvestites (known since asog, bayoc, or bayog), but the majority of the babaylan had been female. Marriage rituals happen to be officiated with a “babaylan” or perhaps “catalonan” (priest) who also performs burial rites for the lifeless. Systems of Writing…
The early inhabitants from the Philippine islands had a native alphabet or perhaps syllabary which in turn among the Tagalogs was called baybayin, a great inscription akin to Sanskrit. It absolutely was through the baybayin that fictional forms just like songs, riddles and proverbs, lyric and short poems as well as parts of epic poetry were created. The bulk of these kinds of early books however was just given to through dental recitation and incantation and were transcribed into the Both roman alphabet only centuries afterwards by The spanish language chroniclers and other scholars. It really is believed that replacement of the baybayin by Roman abece must have obliterated a significant part of indigenous Filipino literature.
It’s consisted of several vowels and 14 consonants, with the total of 17 letters. The writing program was horizontal, from remaining to correct. The composing instrument utilized was a well-defined pointed straightener locally referred to as Sipol. With this straightener instrument, the natives imprinted words on bamboo shafts, wooden planks, leaves of plants, art, and material. Philippine History by M. C HALILI pp. forty seven
Opinion in The grave
The ancient Filipinos believed that every objects got spirits or perhaps were inhabited by this sort of. Even inanimate objects just like rocks, mountains, lakes, etc ., and normal phenomena just like wind, thunder and flames were considered inhabited by particular mood, or to end up being governed simply by certain gods.
Practically, all the early Filipinos had a perception in the the grave. Generally, it absolutely was believed the fact that good attended heaven, even though the evil attended hell. Sometimes, the good soul, rather than climbing to paradise, would consider residence in a local forest or identical spot to watch over their loved ones, or perhaps take care of unfinished business. The soul might travel to one more world to get due incentive or consequence. The good heart will go to kalwalhatian (state of bliss) according to the Tagalogs and ologan, to the Visayans. The bad spirit would go to a place of disaster called kasamaan by the
Tagalogs and Solad in the Visayans.
However , in many cases, there was clearly a belief that each individual had more than one soul. Among the list of Bagobo, each person had a right hand soul and a left-hand soul. The right-hand heart and soul was the good side individuals and visited heaven following death. The left-hand spirit was the nasty in each person and at fatality it went either for the underworld, or stayed on the planet to vex the living. The Ilokanos believed in 3 sould in your body. The timeless soul that continued following death was known as Kararwa according to Calip, when Alingaas the soul that is found at spots one has been previously; and Karma the soul that inhabits the living physique. There as well existed a good idea of about to die persons going out of a “portion” of themselves with other members of the family, followers or perhaps students.
For example , if a person is born nearby the time of the death of relative, and this person happens to have some features of the departed relative, then this child is said to have received a portion with the deceased’s heart. Likewise, if a child is really sick that appears that it may not make it through, but then it occurs that an individual in the family, or near the family, passes away while the baby survives, your child is said to obtain been preserved by section of the deceased’s soul. They all eventually work their very own way to the highest paradise, which usually is the one right below that inhabited by Supreme The almighty. http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-n-a/article.php?igm=4&i=250 http://asiapacificuniverse.com/pkm/spirit.htm
Philippine History by Meters. C HALILI pp. fifty eight