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Limang halimbawa ng pang uri na lantay essay

1 . Introduction

The Saudi Arabian world has been through major alterations through the use of the Video (VCR/ DVD/ VCD) and television (TV). These affects come as a result of watching many hours of foreign cultures on their Online video machines as well as the TV units. These affects of the Online video and TELEVISION may affect family ties, family size, studying behaviors, friendship principle and the use of leisure time.

For instance , Saudi audiences watch diverse life styles from other own for the above known media which may have negative effects on their interpersonal beliefs.

The influence of watching overseas cultures on these multimedia either on the individual or perhaps group level may make more than one sub-culture within one society. However , this research intends to examine some of the associated with foreign nationalities through the Video and TV on the Saudi society tradition as recognized by Saudi undergraduate pupils in Saudi Arabia.

The primary concentrate of the this study is to take a look at the understanding of Saudi students of the result of foreign video’s traditions and tv on their idea of life, as result of seeing many hours of international cultures.

In this regards, the study efforts to explore the influence of foreign cultures after the Saudi society lifestyle through the above mentioned media. With this connection, the researcher is going to study whether or not the effects of these kinds of foreign nationalities (American, Silk and Indian) will have a reinforcement or perhaps reevaluation of the present Saudi concept of family members ties, friends and family size, friendship, studying behaviors, and the utilization of leisure time.

The importance of this analyze relies upon the fact that it reflects as to what extent international culture have got affected the Saudi world culture, as a result of watching a large number of foreign films and Applications on the VCR/ DVD/ VCD and TELEVISION SET. This research may present to what level the presumed influences of the foreign cultures through the VCR/ DVD/ VCD and TV SET has on the subsequent social variables: Family connections, family size, the companionship concept, studying habits as well as the use of spare time.

This research may help for making Saudis conscious of the degree of the adverse effect of the VCR/ DVD/ VCD and TV prove life style. This kind of awareness could be introduced in a “discussion panel on the Saudi TV, wherethe individual members of the panel explore precisely what is good and useful and what is bad and harming to an Islamic Society such as Saudi Arabia. Therefore may help reduce the negative result upon the Saudi interpersonal culture.

The Impact of International Cultures Through the Video ¦

It should be noted that while most of the previous studies on the subject have been conducted on the influence of the make use of the VCR and TELEVISION SET as the sole available mass media on one hand, this kind of study thinks the progression in the technology which have produced other complex media just like DVD/ VCD and others. In addition , this analyze may help the Ministry of Culture and Information to produce appropriate rules for using the VCR/ DVD/ VCD, TELEVISION SET and other advanced future press in Arab saudi.

Definition of Conditions

VCR: “Video Cassette Recorder¦ A magnetic recording and

playback equipment. Generally utilized for recording and viewing full-motion video, yet useful (when adapted) like a data back up device. [1]. DVD AND BLU-RAY: “Digital Flexible Disk.  (Formerly Digital Video Drive. ) Same size like a CD yet stores several times DISC capacity on a single side. Dvd videos can also be double-sided or dual layer. Today most Digital video disks are used to screen full-length industrial motion pictures. [2].

VCD: “Stands for ‘Video Compact Disc’ and basically this can be a CD which has moving photographs and audio. Video-CD or perhaps Video Compact disc. A VCD looks identical to a DVD AND BLU-RAY. Two VCDs are required per film (as only about 70 minutes fits on each VCD). The quality is no better (and sometimes somewhat worse) compared to a new VHS tape. [3].

TV SET: Two Saudi Arabian Government Television Stations: The

First Route broadcasts in Arabic as well as the second Channel broadcasts in English.

Impact: “The effect of a communications moderate on the

audience. [4].

Saudi Students: Saudi students who will be studying at the

undergrad level and are also enrolled in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, at the time of conducting this kind of study.

Culture: “The customary morals, social forms, and materials traits of a racial, spiritual or cultural group. [5].

Commercial on the VCR/ DVD/ VCD: A great advertisement displayed

upon VCR/ DVD/ VCD movies which shows or makes announcement other videos for rental or buy purposes at video shops.

Hassan Omar Basfar

Limitation of the Study: This kind of study symbolizes the understanding of Saudi undergraduate pupils who will be enrolled in King Abdulaziz University over conducting this kind of study. Although the result of this study will not represent the perception coming from all Saudis in Saudi Arabia, this study can give a lot of indications regarding the notion of Saudi students toward the impact of foreign cultures on the Saudi society by making use of VCR/ DVD/ VCD and TV.

Exploration Questions: The principal research problem in this study seeks to check into; Do Saudi students understand that the online video (VCR/ DVD/ VCD) affects their society’s culture? Particularly, the following concerns will be resolved.

Question 1 )

What is the perceived effects of the VCR/ DVD/ VCD

upon the Saudi society culture?

Question installment payments on your

To what magnitude do the VCR/ DVD/ VCD affect the

Saudi society issues family size?

Question several.

Is there s i9000 relationship between the numbers of several hours

put in watching the VCR/ DVD/ VCD as well as the effect of

cultural aspect through the VCR?

Question 4.

Is there a marriage between VCR/ DVD/ VCD

hours and the Saudi society in terms of family ties

relatives size, studying habits, and friendship strategy

and leisure time?

Issue 5.

What sorts of movies (American, Egyptian, and

Indian) do Saudi Arabian?

Students observe on their VCR/ DVD/ VCD?

Question six.

To what degree do commercials on the VCR/ DVD/

VCD affect Saudis in selecting their very own movies to view

within the VCR/ DVD/ VCD?

Issue 7.

Precisely what is the recognized impact the television on the Saudi

culture?

Question almost 8.

What are a few of the reasons why Saudis watch more

hours within the VCR/ DVD/ VCD than on the TELEVISION SET?

The Impact of Foreign Cultures Through the Video ¦

3

Question 9.

Does the perception on the immediate family size

depend on the respondent’s gender and class level?

Question twelve.

Is there a statistically significant difference between

the extended along with the desired instant family

size?

2 . Literature Assessment

With this study, the literature review will cover 3 major facets of the topic: A. International concern of Media Imperialism. B. Influence of the VCR/ DVD/ VCD on Saudi Society. C. Impact in the TV on the Saudi World.

A. International Concern of Media Imperialism

The foreign culture’s effect is the concern of many scholars in international communication and mass media. This concern comes as a consequence of the tendency of the stream of information in the new world towards the third world. This example makes third world countries worried about this problem in their agenda.

For example , chin Chua Lee (1979) in his publication Media Imperialism Reconsidered, showed this matter.

The growing salience of the media’s cultural features may be related to changing milieu of intercontinental concerns plus the corresponding under developed agenda. Internationally, it appears that the struggles pertaining to national self-reliance by the new nations throughout the 1950s plus the early 60s have

been moved to the modern day “north-south financial confrontation from the 1970s as well as the cultural media conflict which will began to happen in the last Couple of years ” Correspondingly, on the area, third world nations around the world seem to possess shifted focal points from national and incorporation and socioeconomic modernization to cultural appearance [6]. However , the challenge of imperialism media is usually “the unbalanced global press flow info came to be known as cultural imperialism [7].

Many under developed countries will be importing plenty of TV creation each year including programs, movies, music and educational programs. The main purpose of adding these courses is to help the development strategies in third world courtiers and to entertain all their citizens.

For example , adding 50 percent of television applications are the next nations: Brazil, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Philippines, Asia, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, The nike jordan, Algeria and Nigeria [8]. One other example of the concern of imperialism media is by the Canadian government, whose concern is the effect of international TV courses on their persons identify. In this case, Canada, as being a large region though it is far from an bad country, faces this problem as well.

The issue Canada confronts in transmitting illustrates simple paradox of any major developing nation that is certainly torn between a search intended for selfidentity and a longing for larger than nation personality, between nationalism and pan-American, and between protectionism and

liberalism [9].

This may be due to technological growth which was were only available in the western countries. “Television, as one type of popular tradition originally started out the technological development and social re-homing of the western world. [10].

In the Middle East, the effect of mass media gets attention to some scholars in international sales and marketing communications and advertising because of the high importing of foreign TELEVISION programs and films from the United States. Specifically, Saudi Arabia is a good model to be analyzed for the subsequent major factors: First, this country imports a top percentage of foreign films and TELEVISION SET programs.

Second, this country is among the foremost countries in the world to use the VCR/DVD/VCD heavily. The main reason for this is the absence of diverse television applications and proportion of the little population to this wealthy nation.

Saudi Arabia’s enormous olive oil wealth clashes with its extremely brief great modernization. Although behind it is more northerly Arab neighbors in terms of expansion, it is even now ahead of the small Gulf Claims. Saudi Arabia also illustrates the dilemmas from the politically conservative regimes in the Arab community, which strive to maintain Arab traditions [11].

W. Impact with the VCR/ DVD/ VCD upon Saudi Society

In respect to Boyd and Srtaubhaar (1985), “Whether media is utilized for fostering a sense of nationalism, or promoting instruction at school, videos are often organized to aid cultural, educational and

The effect of Overseas Cultures Through the Video ¦

economic creation, even thought they may be not always used for that.  [12].

This part of the newspaper explores the effect of the VCR/ DVD/ VCD on the Saudi society by attempting to answer the following concerns: 1 . Perhaps there is an effect of the VCR/ DVD/ VCD within the Saudi

Arabian culture?

2 . How are VCR/ DVD/ VCD used?

3. What kinds of videos can be obtained?

some. Is there control on the kinds of videos offered?

House video (VCR/ DVD/ VCD) are very well-liked in Arab saudi. They provide a strong competition to Saudi television due to the Saudis’ requirements of

entertaining themselves;

They want to visit a variety of Saudi TV programs, which has triggered Saudis to observe the VCR/ DVD/ VCD heavily. Half of Saudi homes that personal televisions include VCR/ DVD/ VCD. In Saudi Arabia, persons rent or buy many movies coming from video clubs and shops. In addition , they exchange VCR/ DVD/ VCD or replicate home movies. Historically, in 1967, some Saudis began purchasing one-half inch Fiat reel-to-reel recorders. Then 39 years ago, Sony brought in U. S i9000. standard three-quarter inch U-matic cassette recorders.

These recorders were accustomed to play backside television applications and prerecorded films. The majority of these materials had been recorded on the environment in the United States or Europe. By late 1972s, Half-Inch Beta and VHS Recorders were marketed inside the Kingdom. The affluent Saudi society was able to offer VCR/ DVD/ VCD to many homes. Robert Azzi (1980) advised of asking his Saudi driver in the event he wished to go home to watch a soccer match on television.

The driver, in explaining that he did not wish to depart for home, explained, “Oh, no”my wife can make a video recording of it for me.  A former Saudi Arabian minister offers referred to his country since the initially video mp3 society [13].

In 1974, an American working for the Sony Organization started providing Sony U-matic video recorders that utilized a three-quarter inch cassette with a maximum playing time of just one hour. Pursuing that yr, the half-inch machines reached an approximate expense of $2, five-hundred. 00. By simply 1981, the organization had manufactured two mil VCRs, VCR dealers inside the Arabian-Gulf countries including Saudi Arabia bought 500, 000 devices. By 80, the VHS machine shot to popularity among Saudis [14].

Hassan Omar Basfar

A survey was done by Bakhadir (1981) in Eastern Arab saudi about having a VHS or Beta machine. The conclusions of this study showed 76. 6 percent of VCR owners experienced VHS devices. On the other hand, the ownership of U-matic and Beta was 21. several percent. This kind of study mirrored the situation in Saudi Arabia. As the price of the VHS was becoming more affordable and a lot of Saudis paid for the appliance. In 1982, sixty one. 4 percent of Saudi television homes ownedVCRs with about seventeen percent using more than one machine [15].

Abdellatif Al-Oofy (1986) conducted a study on the impact in the videocassette recorder on youthful Saudis television set viewing patterns and life-style. One of the major towns, Medina, acquired the highest proportion in male ownership of VCRs and Riyadh, the Capital of Saudi Arabia, had the greatest ownership of VCRs by females, correspondingly 88% and 84%.

In addition, Al-Oofy identified that 76% of guys and 83% of females owned VCRs. We can recognize from this examine about buying VCRs in Saudi Arabia, that there is a high percentage of proudly owning VCRs between Saudi college students in Saudi Arabia. Although individuals students consider that they you don’t have enough time to watch the VCR, a high percentage of them are owners of VCR [16].

According to Abdellatif Al-Oofy’s (1986) research of the effect of the videocassette recorder about young Saudi television observing habits and lifestyle, there is a growing effect of the VCR programs plus the way persons linguistically communicate. Egyptian films, in particular, transmit many words to the Saudi dialect. This is certainly less evident with American languages. Additionally , the specialist noted that it can be obvious now that the VCR is invading Saudi’s homeowners essentially because it is the only entertainment apparatus available in the absence of a rich and diversified television network.

Mover, among the central problems confronted by countrywide Saudi television production and programming can be its comparative failure to meet the developing public with regard to information when compared to other Persia countries and Western tv technology. Nevertheless, one may possibly notice that amongst its unfavorable influences may be the continual throwing away of time which, in turn, might lead to weight gain, myopia, and so on. Additionally , culturally it deals with the importation of external beliefs, attitudes and beliefs improper with the Arab-Islamic culture [17].

Saudi Arabia has made a law named, “The Online video Bill.  This 80 law specifies undesirable materials, details the conditions under which will video

The Impact of Overseas Cultures Throughout the Video ¦

tape leasing establishments may be operated, and punishment is made for “material possibly defamatory to the Islamic faith or endangering the security or maybe the country.  [18]. According to Al-Oofy’s (1986) study, American movies are seen as the most preferred for small Saudi college students in 3 major metropolitan areas: Riyadh, Jeddah and Medina.

Then, subsequent that, Egypt movies which they see on the VCR [19]. In addition , this analyze reflected what impact VCR programs possess on Saudi society’s beliefs, values, and attitudes. The findings confirmed that equally Saudi women and men are anxious about that VCR programs change their morals and ideals. This result reflects a bad attitude towards the VCR [20].

Lately, the advancement in technology has created othersophisticated media such as DVD/ VCD that joined the traditional VCR as the most utilized popular mass media among Saudi Arabian human population, especially, mainly cities of Riyadh, Jeddah and Dammam.

C. Effect of the TV on the Saudi Society

“Watching television set is popular among teenagers in Saudi Arabia, Saudi males choice Western courses best, whilst non-Saudi Arabs and Saudi females prefer Arabs programs.  [21]. Before Saudi Arabia started to be a kingdom in 1932, under Full Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud, a series of wifi point-to-point connection stations were purchased to help with the administration of his large nation. King Abdulaziz overcame the objections to radio conversation by convincing the Kingdom’s religious head that the airwaves was not the job of the satan.

Later, this helped to create radio transmitting in the american part of Saudi Arabia. In the late 1970s, two television set stations were in operation. Following the successful start of tv in the country’s two most significant cities, Riyadh and Jeddah, new areas were added. Then, in 1982 the Ministry of Information could report the major towns could receive the one Saudi TV route which was owned by the government [22].

Boyd and Najai reported that television set quickly shot to popularity in Arab saudi because there was not a cinemas and theaters authorized by thegovernment. In the Asian Province of Saudi Arabia, visitors may receive television indicators from neighboring Arabian Gulf of mexico countries; Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and Usa Arab Emirates [23].

Hassan Omar Basfar

In the past, the Saudi Arabian federal government has not been open to media research simply by Saudi nationals or outsiders, although this kind of attitude is definitely changing considerably in recent years [24]. A study by Boyd and Shobili (1972) provided the only useful and available data of a period when the visual medium was still new. Regardless of it’s a lot of limitations, for instance , a small sample (120) of only men were used and the sample was not medically drawn. Nevertheless , the study found that:

1 . Television sets were owned simply by 90. 8 percent with the respondents, 39 percent possessed two sets.

installment payments on your Sixty percent from the respondents explained they watched television daily. 3. Respondents watched typically 14. almost 8 hours each week.

4. An average of 5. 9 persons watched television.

5. Thursday and Friday evening (the Saudi equivalent of Friday and Saturday nights) Broadcasting of Egyptian movies and tv set programs had been the most popular tv offerings [24].

A report was also done in early 1980s by simply Boyd and Najai (1984) which proposed to examine children television looking at in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of their study was to summarize observing habits pertaining to both guy and female Saudi and non-Saudi Arabs residing in Riyadh, the administrative centre of Arab saudi.

The test included 600 adolescents involving the ages of 15 and 20 via secondary universities in Riyadh. From the sample, a total of 520 completed responses were tabulated (283 males and 237 females). Of the 520 usable forms, 407 (78. 3%) were completed by simply Saudis; the remaining 113 were completed simply by non-Saudis from Jordan, Egypt and Syria [25].

The study also permitted three programming personal preferences: Western courses, programs produced in other Arab countries, and Saudi made programs. The respondents were asked: “which one of these three types of programs really does you like ideal? ‘

The results shows that 36. 0% preferred European programs, 40. 5% desired programs from the other Arab countries, and just thirty-two. 6% responded that they recommended Saudi produced programs. Also, this analyze noted more Saudi female respondents favored local applications than would their guy counter parts, while zero Saudi females showed any in local programs. Also, more

The effect of Foreign Cultures Through the Video ¦

Saudi and non-Saudi men respondents recommended Western programs than performed females Stand 1 .

Table 1 . Male and female program tastes.

Sort of Program

Saudis

Non-Saudis

Man

Female

Man

Female

European

47. 9%

23. 2%

36. 1%

30. 8%

Arab Programs

29. seven percent

39. 5%

57. 3%

69. 2%

Saudi Produced Programs

twenty two. 4%

thirty seven. 3%

six, 6%

Source: Douglas Boyd and Ali Meters. Naji, “Adolescent TV viewing in Arab saudi,  Writing Quarterly, P. 299, 1984.

In a analyze done by Najai in 1982, it had been found that 563 in the total 892 respondents publicly stated that they have copied television character types in for least one of the respects, such as the character’s voices, hair styles, dress, general presence, body motion, or the method the character types speak [26].

The result of an Silk series might be extended to other groups of society such as women, children, and children. It has been found that children, in particular, will probably learn by simply watching other folks in the process of learning [27].

Relating to Alamoudi (1984), the VCR is too difficult to control and is regarded one of the biggest hazards, not only to tv but as well to the belief system of the society. Through this category will be plays, series, drama, movies, and athletics. The demand intended for entertainment programs is such that Saudi TV devotes forty five percent of broadcast a chance to this coding. The programs in the initially channel was grouped in three wide-ranging categories; entertainment, religious, and news. Inside the entertainment category, Egyptian series are divided into episodes. Each episode is one hour long and is displayed for 13 days [28].

In accordance to Merdad (1987), the shortage of local production in Saudi television set is evident. Saudi Arabia has some programs coming from Egypt and also from Kuwait. Also, Arab saudi imported a lot of programs from some countries such as Michael jordan, Syria, Korea, and Lebanon [29]. In addition , whenever we notice on Table 2 that Arab saudi imported the

Hassan Omar Basfar

30

highest percentage (74. 5%) from Egypt among these Arabian countries. (Table 2).

Table 2 . Method to obtain imported Arab programs in Saudi Arabian television, 1981. Country

Aggregate Hours

Percentage

Egypt

998

74. five per cent

Kuwait

117

8. almost eight

Lebanon

117

8. 8

Iraq

52

3. being unfaithful

Jordan

21

2 . 0

Syria

26

2 . 0

Total

1362

100. 0%

Source: Khaled Ahmed Al-Amoudi, “Toward the Implementation of Saudi Arabia’s Information Insurance plan, A Content Analysis Research for Saudi Arabian tv set Programs; Initial channel,  (Master’s Study, Michigan State University,  East Lansing, P. 39.

Television generally exposes kids to adult actions and relationships that they are unprepared. They are chucked into a grownup world long before they have the info and maturity to cope with that. How tv affects a child will depend on how a child interprets what is viewed and the utilize child makes of that data. Parents and other adults can be the determining element in making television set a positive learning experience [30].

The Kingdom of Arab saudi recognized tv as a highly effective force for bringing about alter. The human population of Arab saudi was mentally prepared to recognize the television moderate for they wished a means of recreation and entertainment that could not be in conflict using their religion. Also, the introduction of technology and the affect of American culture built them wanting to learn about activities and persuits in other elements of the world. Television brought Arab saudi out of social remoteness [31].

Shobailli (1971) concluded the rules of the Ministry of Information for imported programs in Saudi Arabia prohibited the next:

1 . Scenes which will arouse intimate excitement.

2 . Girls, who show up indecently attired, appear in party scenes, or in moments which show overt serves of love.

The Impact of International Cultures Throughout the Video ¦

31

several. Women who can be found in athletic online games or sporting activities.

some. Alcoholic beverages or nearly anything connected with having.

5. Derogatory recommendations to any with the “heavenly spiritual,  six. Treatment of various other countries with praise, épigramme, or contempt. 7. Sources to Zionism.

almost eight. Material designed to expose monarchy.

9. All immoral scenes.

10. Sources to bets or betting.

11. Excessive physical violence [32].

The Saudi world has been impacted by TV since the first TV SET (ARAMCO TELEVISION SET Company) inside the eastern component to Saudi Arabia. The federal government recognized the influence of TV in Saudis. Prior to the arrival of TV to Saudi Arabia, some people traveled to Egypt and Iraq and enjoyed TV. Then simply, government helped bring the TV after convincing the religious commanders who were troubled about what will probably be shown for the small home window TV.

Precisely why Saudi Arabia demands on rigid adherence to Islamic standards in the media, especially on television, is the government’s desire to maintain its image because both the homeland of Muslims and the centre of Islamic world, which contains a lot more than seventy-one Islamic nation-states. To tell the truth, the Saudis feel themselves responsible for dispersing the meaning of Islam to the remaining portion of the world. It is this missionary role which in turn had put Saudi television set in such a although position, as a result of inevitable requirement to maintain stringent Islamic information lines even now competing to stations inside the Gulf region [33].

From the above observed Scholars declaration, one can believe Western courses as well as other Arabic programs possess influenced the Saudi culture in terms of life-style, tradition and language.

3. Analysis Methodology, Data Analysis, Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations

Research Design and style and Strategy

The populations on this study contains male and female Saudi Arabian undergraduate college students enrolled by King Abdulaziz University

thirty-two

Hassan Omar Basfar

Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, during summer, june 2006. Approximately 15, 000 pupils constituted the people of this examine. A randomly sample scale 100 was selected in this study. The majority of the students who had been involved in this kind of study were single.

A survey instrument in the form of a questionnaire was originally drafted in Persia (Arabic is the native language of the test population. ). This customer survey was used in collecting info for this research. The Questionnaires was translated into English by the researcher because the exploration was written in The english language.

Then, the translated questionnaire was checked by Five Saudi Instructors at King Abdulaziz School who will be expert in both Arabic and The english language languages (i. e., their undergraduate certifications were from Saudi Universities and their graduate student work was done in either American or perhaps British Universities). The researcher goal with this translation via Arabic to English and from the English version for the Arabia type was to acquire a balanced translation between distinct languages with out deviating coming from thespan style=”line-height: 1.5″>Arabic unique meanings this is called simply by Alghalib (2004) among various other scholars the linguistic equivalency.  [34].

Finally, the Arabic variation of the set of questions was in that case distributed to the selected sample or 100 students of to whom 83 (or 83%) of these responded. The questionnaire consisted of 22 products designed to gather data about demographic data, respondents’ perception on the effect of VCR/ DVD/ VCD and TV upon Saudi Arabian culture and usage of American, Egyptian and Indian videos.

Responses to most from the perception products were by using an ordinal Likerttype scale. On those grounds, means and standard change were within the presentation and evaluation of data just for this study.

Analysis and Research Conclusions

The primary purpose of this kind of study was to assess the awareness of Saudi students regarding the effect of it (VCR/ DVD/ VCD) and television(TV) around the Saudi world culture. Info presented through this section was gathered through a survey of Saudi Arabian undergraduate pupils at California king Abdulaziz University, Jeddah Saudi Arabia.

A total of 83 Respondents participated in the Survey. Therefore, due to a comparatively low volume of observations, this study is primarily descriptive in nature. Research results will be presented with regards to frequencies, proportions, means and standard deviations. Whenever

The effect of Foreign Cultures Throughout the Video ¦

appropriate, a chi-square evaluation of record significance and the t-test will be utilized to addresses some of the study questions. In using the chi-square test of statistical significance, the problem of empty skin cells or skin cells with low expected frequencies was of big concern. To be able to minimize this issue, certain parameters used had been appropriately flattened to reduce the number of empty cells and thus reduce the chi-square degrees of freedom.

Though treatment may not completely eliminator the challenge of bare cells or perhaps cells with low anticipated frequencies, that represents the very best efforts carried out to maximize the validity in the chi-square a results presented the couple of number of topics in this analyze.

The division of respondents according to five major demographic factors was the following: of the total 83 respondents, 58 (or 69. 9% were males, while twenty-five (or 35. 1%) were females; 63 (or seventy five. 9%) had been single, whilst 19 (or 22. 9%) were married and you (or 1 ) 2%) was divorced. The vast majority of respondents who participated from this study ranged in era from 18 to 20 years of age. However , several students had been under 18 years old and 11 (or 13. 31%) were above 22 years.

Respondents were asked to indicate their current class level in the university. Table 3(a) shows the amount and percentage of responses by category

level and age group.

Table 3(a). Quantity and percentage of participants by age group class level. Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Older

All

Age

n

%

N

%

n

%

n

%

n

%

Less than

18 years

4

95. 0

some

4. 8

18 to less

than twenty

years

11

twenty-five. 0

1

2 . a few

32

72. 7

44

53. zero

20 to less

than twenty-two

years

12

40. 0

several

12. 5

9

thirty seven. 5

twenty four

28. 9

2

18. 2

9

81. 8

12

13. 3

15

18. 1

15

18. 1

thirty-five

42. a couple of

18

twenty-one. 7

83

100. 0

22 years

and also

Most

Hassan Omar Basfar

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From Stand 3(a), pyschological data reports that the majority of the respondents were juniors (42. 2%), while only 15 (or 18. 1%) were freshmen, 1 (or 18. 1%) had been sophomores and 18 (or 21. 7%) were elderly people. In terms of their age, the data demonstrated that four (or 5. 8%) had been under 18 years, forty-four (or 53. 0%) had been between 18 and twenty years, 24 (or 28. 9%) were between 20 a great 22 years, and 14 (or 13. 3%) were 22 years or old. The respondent’s class level in relation to sexuality is provided in Stand 3(b). Table 3(b). Amount and percentage of participants by male or female and course level. Guy

Class Level

Female

All

N

%

n

%

n

%

Freshman

11

73. several

4

21. 7

15

18. 1

Sophomore

10

66. 7

5

33. 3

15

18. one particular

Junior

twenty-four

68. 6

11

thirty-one. 4

35

42. two

Senior

13

72. 2

5

27. 8

18

21. several

All

58

69. on the lookout for

25

31. 1

83

100. 0

From Stand 3(b), pyschological data reports that while 73. 3% of the freshmen had been males, only 26. 7% were females. The same pattern of under-representation for females inside the class levels was reasonably consistent with the greatest representation in sophomore year with sixty six. 7% in the respondents being males in comparison to 33. 3% being females.

In response to the primary purpose of this exploration, ten certain research concerns were regarded. The research inquiries are shown in the staying part of it. Each study question can be restated, and then a display of the exploration findings relevant to the research problem.

Research Problem 1: What is the identified impact with the VCR/ DVD/ VCD upon the Saudi society lifestyle?

To acquire an idea from the extent that VCR/ DVD/ VCD applications have influenced Saudi contemporary society culture, respondents were asked to indicate the extent that they identified VCR/ DVD/ VCD applications have influenced Saudi beliefs, beliefs and attitudes. Within an ordinal Likerttype scale which range from (1) very strongly afflicted to (5) not at all influenced, means and standard deviations were calculated on each from the affected areas. This evaluate being an ordinal Likert-type size, a low indicate (near 1 . 00) can indicate a high effect, whilst a high indicate (near

The effect of Overseas Cultures Throughout the Video ¦

35

your five. 00) will indicate a decreased effect. Table 3(b) presents the means and normal deviations pertaining to the recognized effect of VCR/ DVD/ VCD programs about Saudi students’ values, beliefs and behaviour.

Table 4. Means and standard deviations for the effect of VCR/ DVD/ VCD applications on values, beliefs, and attitudes.

Social Aspect

Suggest

S. m.

Values towards importance of friends and family ties

5. 145

1 ) 170

installment payments on your 542

1 . 129

installment payments on your 157

1 ) 131

Values in the women’s role

Attitudes toward family size

From Desk 4, psychological data reports that VCR/ DVD/ VCD programs impact Saudi society beliefs inside the role of girls and perceptions towards family members size much more than it impacts values to importance of family ties. Respondents were also asked to indicate their level of arrangement as to whether VCR/ DVD/ VCD affected Saudi society regarding family ties, family size, studying habits, friendship principle and use of leisure time.

In a five point Likert type scale which range from (1) strongly agree to (5) strongly don’t agree, means and standard deviations were calculated for each of the affected areas. A high imply (near a few. 00) can indicate a solid disagreement that the VCR/ DVD/ VCD features affected the region, while a decreased mean (near 1 . 00) indicates a powerful agreement which the VCR/ DVD/ VCD provides affected the region. Table a few shows the means and standard deviations for each in the affected areas.

Table 5. Means and standard deviations for the effect of VCR/ DVD/ VCD programs on Saudi Students’ in terms of family members ties, family members size, studying habits, friendship concept and use of leisure time.

Area Damaged

Mean

S i9000. d.

Conditioning family ties

4. 157

2 . 108

zero. 930

0. 781

1 . 976

0. 540

2 . 500

0. 584

1 . 904

0. 509

Encouraging reduction of relatives size

Changing of study habits

Changing of the camaraderie concept

Changing the usage of leisure time

Via Table your five, it is shown that respondents perceived a greater effect of VCR/ DVD/ VCD about usage of spare time (mean ” 1 . 904), the study behaviors (mean = 1 . 976), and the least effect on fortifying family ties

36

Hassan Omar Basfar

(mean = 4. 157). The effect of VCR/ DVD/ VCD about encouraging the reduction of family size was close to neutral (mean= 2 . 108).

Study Question two: To what extent do the VCR/ DVD/ VCD affect the Saudi society issues family size?

Around the respondents’ notion on the extent to which VCR/ DVD/ VCD programs have affected the Saudi society on the family members size, eq and proportions were computed for each response level. Desk 6 displays the eq and percentages for each response level. Table 6. Eq and proportions for the result of the VCR/ DVD/ VCD on the lowering of family size since perceived by Saudi undergrad students. Degree of Agreement/Disagreement

Highly Disagree

Disagree

Neither Concur nor Argue

Acknowledge

Highly Agree

Rate of recurrence

Percentage

a few

3. 6

7

almost eight. 4

21 years old

25. three or more

21

twenty-five. 3

23

37. three or more

From Desk 6, pyschological data reports that 52 (or sixty two. 6%) in the respondents concur or firmly agree that VCR/ DVD/ VCD programs affect Saudi Society with regards to family size, while simply 10 (or 12. 0%) strongly differ.

Research Question 3: Do they offer a relationship between the numbers of hours spent observing the VCR/ DVD/ VCD and the effect of cultural factor through the VCR/ DVD/ VCD? Respondents had been asked to point the approx . number of several hours they spend watching VCR/ DVD/ VCD programs each week.

The number of hours ranged from the best 7 several hours (a week) to the greatest 17 several hours (a week). For the purpose of research, ten several hours or significantly less were considered low VCR/ DVD/ VCD hours and more than eight hours were considered high VCR/ DVD/ VCD hours. Based on this kind of dichotomous way of measuring the amount of VCR/ DVD/ VCD hours per week, a chi-square test of statistical relevance was used to ascertain whether or not we have a statistically significant relationship between amount of VCR/ DVD/ VCD watched with the perceptions on the degree VCR/ DVD/ VCD programs affect Saudi society traditions.

The Impact of Foreign Cultures Through the Online video ¦

thirty seven

Table several shows the observed chi-square values and the

corresponding significance level for the effects of VCR/ DVD/ VCD several hours on Saudi society ideals, beliefs and attitudes.

Table. six Chi-square results for the effect of VCR/ DVD/ VCD hours on Saudi students’ values, philosophy and behaviour.

Chi-Square

value

d. farrenheit.

Significance

Level

Values towards significance of family ties

8. 013

4

zero. 0911

Believes in women’s role

2 . 427

4

zero. 6577

Perceptions towards American culture

towards friends and family size

5. 197

some

0. 3801

Cultural Feature

* Value at 0. 05 amounts.

Table 7 shows that no statistically significant relationship was observed involving the number of VCR/ DVD/ VCD hours each week with the notion on the VCR/ DVD/ VCD effect on Saudi students’ principles towards significance of family jewelry (x2 sama dengan 8. 013, P >zero. 05), morals in ladies role (x2 = installment payments on your 427, L >0. 05) and attitudes towards family size (x2 = some. 197 S >0. 05). As suggested by the chi-square test, zero systematic relationship exists among numbers of VCR/ DVD/ VCD hours a week with the cultural aspects considered with this study. Exploration Question four:

Is there a significant relationship among VCR/ DVD/ VCD several hours and the a result of Saudi culture in terms of family members ties, relatives size, learning habits, friendship concept and using free time? Respondents had been asked to indicate their standard of agreement of disagreement whether or not watching VCR/ DVD/ VCD affects Saudi society when it comes to family jewelry, family size, studying behaviors, friendship concept and usage of leisure time over a Likert-type scale:

(1) Firmly disagree

(2) Argue

(3) Neither confirms nor disagrees

(4) Agree

(5) Firmly agree.

Hassan Omar Basfar

38

Applying this five-level way of measuring the level of arrangement, crossed with all the two-level way of measuring VCR/ DVD/ VCD several hours considered in research issue 3 above, a chi-square test of statistical significance was used to determine whether or not the perception on the effect of VCR/ DVD/ VCD upon family size, family jewelry, studying habits, friendship principle and use of leisure time counted on the number of VCR/ DVD/ VCD hours. Stand 8 shows the discovered chi-square ideals and their matching significance level for all these types of aspects of lifestyle. Table almost 8. Chi-square outcomes for the result of VCR/ DVD/ VCD hours on Saudi students’ values, morals and behaviour.

Chi-Square

value

d. f.

Significance

Level

Strengthening relatives ties

6. 192

a few

0. 1026

Encouraging lowering of family size

2 . 574

several

0. 4621

Changing from the study practices

4. 716

3

zero. 1938

Changing of the companionship concept

0. 207

three or more

0. 9765

Changing the usage of leisure time

1 . 175

3

0. 6336

Cultural Feature

Table eight shows zero statistically significant relationship was observed the perceptions on the effect of VCR/ DVD/ VCD on the areas of culture while using numbers of several hours spent observing VCR/ DVD/ VCD per week.

Research Question 5: Were types of films (American, Egyptian, and Indian) do Saudi Arabian learners watch prove VCR/ DVD/ VCD? On a four-point Likerrt-type scale suggesting the rate of recurrence of observing American, Egypt or American indian movies on the VCR/ DVD/ VCD, starting from (1) often to (4) never, is important, percentages, means and regular deviations had been computed for every of these three cultures.

A low mean (near 1 . 00) will reveal highviewing charge, while an increased mean (near. 00) will indicate Z . low viewing rate. Stand 9, reveals the matters, percentages, means and normal deviations to get the rate of viewing videos from every culture (or country).

The effect of International Cultures Throughout the Video ¦

39

Table 9. Number and percentage of respondents by gender and school level. Culture or Country

Silk

American

Indian

Rate of Viewing

N

%

n

%

and

%

Frequently

38

45. 8

fifty-one

61. 5

4

some. 9

37

45. eight

23

27. 7

22

26. almost 8

Seldom

several

8. 4

9

10. 8

twenty-four

29. a few

Never

32

39. zero

Sometimes

Mean

1 . 627

1 . 494

3. 024

Standard Deviations

0. 638

0. 687

0. 929

Table 9 indicates that the most frequently observed movies inside the VCR/ DVD/ VCD are American followed by Egyptian films. It is, yet , interesting to note that fifty-one (or sixty one. 4%) in the respondents indicated that they watchAmerican movies frequently compared to 35 (or forty-five. 8% whom watch Egyptian movies regularly and only 5 (or four. 9%) who watch Of india movies usually.

On the other hand, probably none of the participants indicted that they never watch Egyptian or perhaps American videos, while 32 (or 39%) indicated that they never observe, Indian films. On average, Saudi students frequently watch American movies suggest ” 1 ) 494), at some time watch Silk movies (mean ” 1 . 626) and seldom enjoy Indian movies (mean sama dengan 3. 024).

Research Question 6: To look at extent perform commercials within the VCR/ DVD/ VCD affect Saudis in selecting the movies to watch for the VCR/ DVD/ VCD? Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not they watch ads on VCR/ DVD/ VCD programs.

Just in case they do, anindication of their awareness regarding the magnitude to which advertisements on movies affect their very own selection of the types of movies to watch was also required. From the total 83 respondents, 77 (or 80. 8%) mentioned that they do watch commercials on VCR/ DVD/ VCD programs. On a Likert-type deal ranging from (1) very firmly affected to (5) certainly not affected

Hassan Omar Basfar

40

participants indicated the extent to which commercials influence their collection of movies. Table 10 reveals the eq and percentages for each from the response levels.

Desk 10. Frequencies and percentages for the result of advertisements on the choice of movies.

Response Level

Extremely Strongly Damaged

Firmly Affected

Somewhat Afflicted

A little bit Affected

Not Al All Afflicted

Frequency

Percentage

10

doze. 0

seventeen

20. 5

32

35. 6

twenty-two

26. 5

2

2 . 4

Via Table 10, it is shown that the majority of the, participants indicted that they are somewhat afflicted (38. 6%) or a little bit affected (26. 5%). However , it is only 2 (or 2 . 4%) who indicted that they are not at all afflicted with commercials in selecting movies to watch on the VCR/ DVD/ VCD.

Analysis Question six: What is the perceived influence of television set (TV) for the Saudi world? Respondents had been asked to point the magnitude to which they perceive the tv (TV) features affected their very own view concerning acceptance of nonSaudi values. In a Likert-type scale relating to from (1) very firmly affected to (5) never affected, frequencies and proportions were computed for each from the response classes. Table 11, present the frequencies and percentagefor the distribution of Saudi undergraduate students’ reactions.

From Stand 11, psychological data reports that 53 or sixty four. 6%) from the respondents indicated that tv set has slightly or to some extent affected the Saudi contemporary society culture. Yet , 27 (or 33. 0% indicated the effect is strong or perhaps very strong, whilst only two (or 2 . 4% mentioned that television set does not in any way affected the Saudi contemporary society.

The Impact of Foreign Nationalities Through the Video ¦

forty one

Table eleven. Frequencies and percentages intended for the impact of television TV) on popularity of non-Saudi values.

Response Level

Frequency

Percentage

Very Strongly Affected

13

15. on the lookout for

Strongly Affected

14

17. 1

Somewhat Affected

28

32. on the lookout for

Slightly Afflicted

26

thirty-one. 7

Certainly not Affected

two

2 . 5

Research Issue 8: Exactly what some of the explanations why Saudis enjoy more hours from the VCR/ DVD/ VCD than of the TV? Respondents had been provided with five potential explanations why people in Saudi Arabia view more courses on the VCR/ DVD/ VCD than around the TV.

With each of these reasons, respondents were asked to indicate the degree to which that they agree or perhaps disagree the given explanation is valid. On a five-point Likert-type scale ranging from (1) strongly consent to (5) firmly disagree; means and standing deviations had been computed for each and every of the response or reasons. A high imply near 1 . 00 indicates a strong contract. Table 12, shows the means and standard deviations for each of the five factors.

From Table 12, pyschological data reports that there was clearly a general contract to a strong agreement that all the five reasons make clear why people in Arab saudi watch more programs around the VCR/ DVD/ VCD than on the TV SET. Research Question 9: Will the perception for the immediate relatives size depend on the respondent’s gender and class level?

In an attempt to decide whether or not the desired immediate relatives size of Saudi students counted on the scholar’s gender and class level, a chi-square test of statistical relevance was utilized. Table 13, shows

the chi-square values and their corresponding significance level to get respondent’s gender and class level.

Hassan Omar Basfar

42

Stand 12. Means and standard deviations for the reasons that accounts for more hours of VCR/ DVD/ VCD than TELEVISION hours.

Reason

Mean

S. Deb.

Limited TV SET channels

installment payments on your 084

zero. 736

Limited programs in the news

2 . 500

0. 737

Lack of entertainment on TV

1 . 866

zero. 539

Not enough educational courses on TV

1 . 831

zero. 539

Limited time of TELEVISION schedule

1 ) 795

zero. 579

Stand 13. Chi-square results pertaining to the relationship among desired family size with gender and class level.

Relevance

Independent variable

Gender

Class Level

Chi-Square Value

d. f.

Level

zero. 701

1

0. 4020

0. 395

3

0. 9412

From Table 13 it is shown that no statistical significant marriage exists between your desired immediate family size ND male or female (x2 = 0. 701, P >0. 05) or perhaps class level x2 sama dengan 0. 395, P >0. 05). Research Question 15: Is there since statistically significant difference between the extended family and the specified immediate family members size? Participants were asked to indicate: (a) the size of all their extended family) parents, siblings and brothers), and (b) the desired scale their instant family other half and children).

Dependent two sample t-test was used to ascertain if there is statistically significant between extended as well as the desired relatives size of the Saudi undergraduate students. Desk 14 displays the means, standard deviation, t-value plus the observed significance level for this test.

The effect of International Cultures Throughout the Video ¦

43

Desk 14. T-test results pertaining to the difference between the extended family size as well as the desired quick family size.

Value Level

Size

Indicate

S. G.

4. 566

t-value

d. f

1 ) 381

20. 57

82

Ideal immediate

family size

Extended friends and family size

12. 699

0. 0000*

several. 692

5. Significance for 0. 05 levels.

From Table 16 it is clear that a statistically significant difference between your desired instant family and expanded family size was seen at zero. 05 amounts (t ” 20. 57, P < 0. 05). The data indicated which the average expanded family scale the Saudi student was 12. 699 while on average their desired immediate friends and family size was 4. 566.

Summary of Findings

This study assessed the perceptions of Saudi undergraduate students by King Abdulaziz University regarding the effect intended for the video (VCR/ DVD/ VCD) and tv TV within the Saudi contemporary society culture. To accomplish this perspective, 10 research concerns were tackled. Simple detailed statistics, the chi-Square test and t-test were utilized in an attempt to answer the specific research questions in this research. The brief summary of the major findings had been as follows:

1- VCR/ DVD/ VCD programs affect Saudi society beliefs in the could role and attitudes towards family size more than that affects principles towards significance of family ties.

2- No statistically significant romance was noticed between VCR/ DVD/ VCD hours and perceptions for the effect of VCR/ DVD/ VCD on thinking

towards family size, beliefs in women’s part and principles towards significance of family connections.

3- The number of hours spent watching VCR/ DVD/ VCD programs does not have a statistically significant relationship with the effect of VCR/ DVD/ VCD on the ethnical aspects of relatives ties, relatives size, studying habits, companionship concept and use of spare time.

44

Hassan Omar Basfar

4- One of the most frequently observed movies around the VCR/ DVD/ VCD simply by Saudi undergrad students are American and then Egyptian films. The least watched are the Indian movies, wherever 39% with the respondents indicated that they have under no circumstances watched Indian movies issues VCR/ DVD/ VCD.

5- The effect of commercials on the selection of films was identified to be simply moderate (some what afflicted or somewhat affected), exactly where only 12% indicated an extremely strong result and 2 . 4% mentioned no effect at all.

6- The effect of television around the Saudi world was identified to be moderate. Over, 12-15. 9% in the respondents mentioned a very good effect of television set on Saudi society and 2 . 4% indicated zero effect by any means. 7- Generally, most respondents agree or perhaps strongly acknowledge that limited television programs, limited courses on the television, lack of entertainment on television, lack of educational courses and limited time of tv schedule explain why people in Arab saudi watch even more VCR/ DVD/ VCD than TV programs.

8- Zero statistically significant relationship discovered between the preferred immediate family size and respondent’s sexuality.

9- The data mentioned that the scale the expanded family of Saudi undergraduate learners at California king Abdulaziz University is substantially bigger than the size college students desired their particular immediate family members to be. While the

typical extended friends and family size was 12. 699, the average wanted immediate friends and family size was 4. 566.

Conclusions

The following a conclusion may be drawn from the results of this analyze:

1- There is a general agreement among Saudi learners that VCR/ DVD/ VCD programs impact their understanding of the scale their quick family is certainly crucial. This finding along with the prediction that the desired immediate family dimensions are down to four. 566 from 12. 699 suggests that the VCR/ DVD/ VCD programs may be responsible for the fall in the Saudi population’s progress rate.

2- The effect of the Traditional western culture for the Saudi society is obviously reflected on the truth that the most well-liked movies among Saudi

The effect of Foreign Cultures Through the Video ¦

45

learners are American. Though Egypt movies can also be popular among these students, the influence of the Western tradition in Egypt also has an indirect influence on the Saudi society.

Recommendations

This research was carried out to assess the result of international cultures through the video (VCR/ DVD/ VCD) and television set (TV) within the Saudi culture as perceived by Saudi undergraduates students at California king Abdulaziz University or college, Jeddah, Arab saudi. The major restriction of this analysis was the small size of the sample. This shortcoming postures limitation in the study’s external validity. Although study is probably not safely general to any larger population, it provides at least an indication from the effect of the VCR/ DVD/ VCD and TV on the Saudi society as recognized by Saudi students. The researcher suggests that further more research on this project needs to utilize a greater sample driven randomly by a population in Arab saudi.

This research recommends the Saudi Ministry of Culture and details do

the following:

1- Alert people regarding the impact from the VCR/ DVD/ VCD and TV. For example , the mass media in Arab saudi can provide and alert Saudis about the effect of international cultures through the VCR/ DVD/ VCD and TV. Likewise, the ministry should instruct Saudis about the beauty of their own culture throughout the mass media. Additionally , the ministry should present this problem in order to alert people by using

“discussion panels in the news to help promote these types of ideas and help make the Saudis happy with their heritage and values.

2- Build acadamies to train Saudis in Mass media Production, so that they can locally generate Saudi movies for the VCR/ DVD/ VCD and series pertaining to television. The content of this media would focus on reinforcing the beliefs and values of Saudi Arabian society.

3- Develop TV programs to train beliefs and values employing teenagers within the TV as this is the inhabitants we want to reach.

4- Design teaching classes in Saudi large schools, colleges and universities to inform students about the undesired, negative effects with the VCR/ DVD/ VCD around the society. Because of this, this would create a positive habit of making use of the VCR/ DVD/ VCD between those Saudi students.

Hassan Omar Basfar

46

5- Create fresh incentives to show Saudi college students about the cross-cultural interaction problem and effects of advertising on society. This emphasis is certainly not currently inside the Communication Departments at Saudi Arabian colleges.

These suggestions would reduce the dependence on

outdoors movies and shows, thereby decreasing the quantity of foreign cultures’ influence near your vicinity. It should be noted, that Saudi Arabia are not able to eradicate all the international influence near your vicinity, but they must maintain the crucial values and traditions with their people. Endnotes

[1]

www.merging.com/vcube/Pages/WebSite/Glossary.html

www.wrightcolorgraphics.com/v.htm

www.merging.com/vcube/Pages/WebSite/Glossary.html

www.isprank.com/glossary/VCR.html

or perhaps

or

or perhaps

[2]

www.bu.edu/webcentral/learning/av/glossary.html

www.wgcu.org/watch/hdtv_glossaryofterms.html

www.bu.edu/webcentral/learning/av/glossary.html

or

or

[3]

www.tufts.edu/orgs/edmedia/gloss.html

or

www.tufts.edu/orgs/edmedia/gloss.shtml

or

www.library.arizona.edu/users/brewerm/sil/tech/vgloss.html

[4]

The Book of Advertising and marketing, (1986) Unique House Dictionary of the English Language. Chicago, il, IL: NTC Business Catalogs, P. 83.

[5]

Webster’s Ninth Fresh Collegiate Dictionary, (1987) Springfield. Webster, Incorporation., P. 314.

[6]

Chin Chuan Shelter, (1979) Press Imperialism Reconsidered; the Homogenizing of Television set Culture, Beverly Hills, LOS ANGELES; Sage Guides, Inc., L. 24.

[7]

Ibid., S., 25.

[8]

Ibid., L., 76.

[9]

Ibid., L., 113.

[10]

Ibid., P., 102.

[11]

Jeremy Tunstall

(1977) The Mass media, Are American, New Yourk; Columbia

University Press, P. 243.

[12]

Douglas Boyd and Joseph Straubhaar, (1985) Developmental Impact of the Home Video Cassette Recorders around the third World Countries,  Journal of

Broadcasting and Electronic Multimedia, pp: 5-21.

[13]

Douglas Boyd and Ali Meters. Najal, (1984) “Adolescent TELEVISION Viewing in Saudi Arabia,  Journalism Quarterly, pp: 5-21.

[14]

Douglas Boyd yet others, pp: 60-61.

MA: Merriam-

The Impact of Foreign Ethnicities Through the Video ¦

forty seven

[15]

Griddle Arab Exploration Center, November 1982.

[16]

Abdellatif Al-Oofy, (1986) “The Impact from the Video Cassette Recorder on Young Saudi Television”Viewing Behaviors and Life Style,  Unpublished Master’s Research Project, Communication Division, Michigan Condition University, Early spring, P. 96.

[17]

Douglas Boyd and more, pp: 51-52.

[18]

Ibid., pp: 49-52.

[19]

Ibid., P. 48.

[20]

Ibid., P. 51.

[21]

Ibid., pp: 51-52.

[22]

Douglas, A. Boyd while others, (1989) Videocassette Recorders in the Third World, New york city; Longman, Inc., P. 296.

[23]

Ibid., pp: 295-301.

[24]

Douglas Boyd and Ali Meters. Najal, (1984) “Adolescent TELEVISION Viewing in Saudi Arabia,  Journalism Quarterly, pp: 5-21.

[25]

Ibid., pp: 5-12.

[26]

Ali. Najai, (1982) “Television and Youth in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An Empirical Analysis of the Uses of Tv set among Youthful Saudi Arabian

Audiences,  Unpublished doctoral Texte, University of Wisconsin, Madison, P. 160.

[27]

Khaled Ahmed Al-Aamoudi, (1984) “Toward the execution of Saudi Arabia’s details Policy; A Content Evaluation Study to get Saudi Arabian Television Applications; First channel, Master’s Research Project, Michigan Express University, East Lansing, S. 41., L. 160.

[28]

Ibid., L. 43.

[29]

Adel Siraj Merdad, (1987) “A Comparison Analytical Analyze of the Arabian Gulf Transmitting Systems: The Foreign Contextual Tv Penetration,  Unpublished Masters Thesis, The state of michigan State College or university, East Lansing, P. forty one.

[30]

Ministry of Information, (1973) “Television development Plan.  Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, pp: 7-11.

[31]

Abdurrahman Shobaili, (1971) “A Historical and Conditional Study of Broadcasting and Press in Saudi Arabia,  Unpublished Texte, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, pp: 242-243.

[32]

Ibid., pp: 242-243.

[33]

Ridderskab Siraj Merdad, (1987) “A Comparative Analytical Study in the Arabian Gulf of mexico Broadcasting Devices: The Foreign In-text Television Penetration,  Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Michigan Express University, East Lansing, P. 38.

[34]

A1 Ghalib, Saddiga. (2004) “Cross-Cultural Measurement of Learning Style, Epistemological Beliefs, Determination, and Their Relationship To Educational Achievement: The situation Of Saudi Arabian And American Scholars.  Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Southern The state of illinois University, Carbondale, pp: 3-8.

48

Hassan Omar Basfar

References

A1 ” Aamoudi, T. A. (1984) “Toward the Implementation of Saudi Arabia’s Information Insurance plan: A Content material Analysis Examine for Saudi Arabian Television set Programs: First Channel,  Unpublished Masters Research Project. The state of michigan State College or university, East Lansing. A1 Ghalib, S. (2004) “Cross-Cultural Measurement of Learning Style, Epistemological Beliefs, Motivation, and Their Relationship To Academic Achievement: The Case of Saudi Arabian and American Scholars,  Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.

A1- Oofy, A. (1986) “The Effect of the Video Cassette Recorders on Fresh Saudi Television-Viewing Habitats and Lifestyle,  Unpublished Masters Research Project, Michigan State University, East Lansing.

A1 ” Orabi, T. K. (1983) “The Mass Media in Saudi Arabia: Present Idea, functions, boundaries and Selected Strategy for Successful Use in Nation-Building and Sociable Awareness,  Unpublished Important Dissertation

Ohio Point out University.

‘s Saggaf, A. (1967) Data, an Introduction to Saudi Arabia: 20th Century’s Wonder of Progress. Singapore: Malay Engraving and Litho Creating Co.

Asseri, A. (1983) “Non-Saudi manpower in Saudi Arabia,  [In Arabic], Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Imam School, Riyadh.

Bakhider, M. (1981) ‘The Impact of VCR upon Saudi Arabian Television and society.  Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Section of Communication, San Diego Express University, Hillcrest.

Borg, W. 3rd there’s r. and Gall, M. Deb. (1983) Educational Research: An intro (4th Education. ). You are able to: Longman, Inc.

New

Boyd, D. and Straubhaar, J. (1985) “Developmental Impact of the Home video Cassette Recorders around the Third World Countries,  Record of Broadcasting and Digital Media. Boyd, D. while others (1989) Videocassette Records inside the Third World. Nyc: Longman. The Dictionary of Advertising, (1986) (Random Residence Dictionary from the English Language). Chicago, IL: NTC Business Books, S. 83.

Ibrahim, S. At the. (1982) The New Arab Interpersonal Order: A study of the Social Impact of Oil Riches. Boulder, Company: Westview Press.

Kerlinger, F. And. (1965) Foundation of Behavioral Analysis. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Lackner, L. (1978) A family house Built upon Sands: A Political Economic system, of Saudi Arabia. London: Ethnic Press.

Lee, C. C. (1979) Media Imperialism Reconsidered: The Homogenizing of Television Traditions. Beverly Hillsides, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Merded, A. S. (1987) “A comparative Analytical Study in the Arabian Gulf Broadcasting Devices: The foreign Contextual Television Transmission.  A Master’s Thesis, Michigan State University, East Lansing.

The effect of Overseas Cultures Throughout the Video ¦

49

Ministry of Information (1973) Television Creation Plan, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Mordchai, A. (1988) “Regime and Elites, Conflict and effort.  Saudi Arabia in the Essential oil Era (Op. xvii). Boulder, CO: Western view Press.

Najai, A. M. (1989) “Television and Youth inside the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A great Empirical Analysis of the Habits of Tv Among Youthful Saudi Arabian Viewers.  Nie, D. H., Outer skin, C. H., Jenkins, J., Steinbrenner, E. and Curved, D. They would. (1988) Stratified Package pertaining to the Social Sciences (S. P. H. S. X) Manual (3rd Ed. ).: McGraw-Hill Publication Co. Skillet Arab Exploration Center, The fall of, 1982.

Sobeih, M. A. (1982) “The Use of Television to Meet Sociable Needs in Saudi Arabia: An Historical Analytical Study using a Plan for Larger Utilization of the Medium.  Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, School of The south.

Shobili, A. (1971) “A Historical and Analytical Study of Transmissions and Press in Saudi Arabia.  Unpublished Dissertation, Ohio State School, Columbus, Kentkucky. Tunstall, Jeremy (1977) The Media Are American. Ny: Columbia University or college Press. Webster’s Nine Fresh Collegiate Dictionary (1987) Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Inc.

Hassan Omar Basfar

50

Appendix A

Letter and Questionnaire (English Version)

Dear Saudi student:

I are conducting an investigation about the effect of the foreign cultures about Saudi Arabian society through the VCR/ DVD/ VCD and TV utilization in Arab saudi. Enclosed you will see a questionnaire with items related to VCR/ DVD/ VCD and TV (Two Saudi Arabian Governmental Television Channels: The First Channel messages in Arabic and the second Channel messages in The english language. )usage in Saudi Arabia.

This kind of questionnaire will need about five minutes of your energy. I would enjoy it, so much, if you would response all the questions to the best of your understanding. The information through this questionnaire to be used for scientific purposes just and will be remedied confidentially; therefore , your name and address will never be required. You should follow the guidelines to total the set of questions. The completed questionnaire will be collected by the end of your course meeting.

Thank you very much for your matter and your voluntary cooperation in completing and returning the questionnaire. For even more information you should contact me:

Dr . Hassan Omar Basfar

[emailprotected]

kamu. edu. sa/hbasfar

The Impact of Foreign Ethnicities Through the Online video ¦

51

Questionnaire

Instructions: Make sure you answer all questions to the most of your knowledge simply by placing a great “š Around the proper range. If virtually any questions will not apply, you should state “Not Applicable “NA

Part 1

1 . What is the gender?

Male

Female

2 .

What is the marital status?

Single

Divorced

Married

Widowed

3.

What is their current era?

A minor

18 to below 20 years

20 to less than 22 years

22 and over

4.

What is their educational school level?

Freshman

Junior

sophomore

Mature

Part two

The following questions happen to be aimed at discovering your experience with VCR/ DVD/VCD.

5.

Is there a online video (VCR/DVD/VCD) in your living quarters?

Yes

Simply no

If “No. , Make sure you proceed to Query #16.

Approximately just how many hours of encoding do you watch a film on the VCR/ DVD/ VCD in a week?

Several hours

6.

7.

¦¦¦¦¦¦

Do you watch the VCR/ DVD/ VCD?

Alone

With your good friends

With your family

Do you enjoy Egyptian movies on the VCR/ DVD/ VCD?

Hassan Omar Basfar

52

Regularly

At times

Seldom

Never

almost eight.

Do you watch American movies on the VCR/ DVD/ VCD?

Often

Rarely

Sometimes

Never

9.

Will you watch Indian movies on the VCR/ DVD/ VCD?

Frequently

Seldom

Sometimes

Never

15. Which types of movies you prefer to watch on the VCR/ DVD/ VCD? Make sure you rank relating to your desire (1 sama dengan most favored, 5 sama dengan least preferred). Comedy

Action Thriller

Love

Educational

Sports activities

eleven. Do you enjoy commercials about VCR/ DVD/ VCD courses?

Yes

No

If yes, to what degree do you think advertisements on videos affect pick of the types of movies to observe on the VCR/ DVD/ VCD?

Extremely strongly damaged

Firmly affected

Somewhat afflicted

A bit affected

Not at all influenced

12. Do VCR/ DVD/ VCD movies’ looking at time lessen your TV system viewing time?

Yes

No

So why?

(Please

specify)

__________________________________

___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 13. In general, to what extent possess VCR/ DVD/ VCD courses affected this: (Please ring the number? ) (Please use the scale: 1= Very firmly affected a couple of =

The Impact of Foreign Cultures Through the Video ¦

53

Firmly Affected; 3= Somewhat affected; 4 sama dengan Slightly affected; 5 sama dengan Not at all affected)

The values toward the

Importance of friends and family ties.

1

2

3

4

five

Your values in the ladies

Role.

1

two

3

4

5

The attitude toward

American culture in terms of

Family size.

1

2

three or more

4

5

14. Underneath are some statements regarding VCR/ DVD/ VCD usage which you can respond to using the scale? (Scale: SA= strongly agree; A= Agrees; N/D= neither agree nor Disagree; D sama dengan Disagree; SECURE DIGITAL = firmly disagree).

SOCIAL FEAR

A N/D D

SECURE DIGITAL

Observing the VCR/ DVD/ VCD

strengthens family ties.

Observing the VCR/ DVD/ VCD encourages

reduction of family size.

Seeing the VCR/ DVD/ VCD changes

the study patterns.

Viewing the VCR/ DVD/ VCD changes

the a friendly relationship concept.

Watching the VCR/ DVD/ VCD change the

custom of applying leisure time.

15. Please indicate the extent that you accept some of the reasons given as to the reasons Saudis want to watch even more programs around the VCR/ DVD/ VCD than on the TV in Arab saudi. (Please utilize scales; SA= Strongly acknowledge; A= Acknowledge; N/D= Neither agree nor disagree; D= Disagree; SD= Strongly disagree). SA

A

N/D Deb

SECURE DIGITAL

Limited TV Channels.

Limited Programs in the news.

Insufficient Entertainment in the news.

Insufficient Educational Programs

in the news.

Limited Time of TELEVISION SET Schedule.

Hassan Omar Basfar

54

Part several

The following questions are relevant to your experience of the TV (Two Saudi Arabian Governmental Television set Channels: The First Channel broadcasts in Arabic and the second Funnel broadcasts in English. ).

16. Will you watch TV?

Alone

With your close friends

With the family

17. Generally speaking, to what level has Saudi TV damaged your landscapes regarding acceptance of non-Saudi values?

Very strongly affected

Strongly influenced

To some degree affected

Slightly afflicted

Never affected

Why? (Please specify) _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 18. Watching television programs enhance my academics performance? Firmly agree

Consent

Neither confirms nor disagrees

Don’t agree

Strongly disagree

Part four

The subsequent questions are made to obtain info on your associates with family and friends in Arab saudi.

nineteen. What is how big is your family (parents, sisters and brothers)? the phone number?

Number

(Please show

¦¦¦¦¦¦¦

twenty. What kind of ties do you really presently possess with your extended family (parents, sisters, and brothers)?

Very strong jewelry

Strong ties

The effect of Foreign Cultures Through the Video ¦

55

Modest ties

Weak jewelry

Very weak jewelry

twenty one. Generally speaking, what size are you wanting your instant family (your spouse and children) to become? (Please suggest the number).

Amount

¦¦¦¦¦¦¦

twenty two. How frequently will you interest along with your friends?

Frequently

Sometimes

Hardly ever

Under no circumstances

Thank you very much for your non-reflex cooperation in completing the questionnaire. Have got a successful educational year.

56

Hassan Omar Basfar

Appendix B

Mass Interaction Policy in Saudi Arabia 2.

Launch

The info policy identifies the principles and goals which in turn constitute the foundations and requirements of information in Saudi Arabia. This coverage emanates from Islam, in règle and rules, which is the national religious beliefs. It aims at establishing idea in our god, raising the intellectual, ethnical, and perceptual level inside the citizens, and dealing with social problems. It seeks to stress the concept of behavior to Goodness, his prophet, and the legal guardian.

That urges to respect the law and to make it out contently. It includes the broad describes which govern the Saudi information; therefore accomplishing the goals through education, advice, and fun. This coverage is considered a part of the country’s general coverage, and is specified in the pursuing articles: Content 1: The Saudi mass communication is going to oppose almost all destructive power, atheistic Amour, materialistic philosophies, and all attempts to distract the Moslems from their.

Document 2: 2. The Great council of Mass Interaction Policy, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, August 1982. Converted into British by Sa’id Khader Al-Orabi Al-Harithi, philosophy. It will further more expose their particular falsehood and dangers towards the individuals and societies, will be will stand up to every obstacle which does not agree with the typical policy in the country.

Document 3: All the info media seek to serve world by consolidating its valuable Islamic ideals; firmly correcting its privileged Arabic customs; keeping their gracious passed down customers; and stand in resistance toeverything that spoils it is purity and harmony.

Document 4: Most mass interaction will keep pace with serve the present policy from the Kingdom, protecting the primary hobbies of the citizens first, then a Moslems and Arabs generally. This will be done by the ownership of this policy and its display with complete documentation, supported by precedence and facts.

Content 5: All of the mass connection will strive to present the first and distinctive characteristics or Saudi Arabia for the national and international levels, emphasizing the stability and safety, and progress in a variety of domains by simply embracing Islam as the constitution in the government plus the law of life, placing upon her shoulders the respons9bility to serve the Islamic almost holy places.

Document 6: Each of the mass communication will keep pace with strengthen the bond among the list of citizens by informing these people of him numerous parts of their nation and the significant aspects associated with them, hence demonstrating the complementary mother nature of these areas.

Article7: Each of the mass conversation will seek to enhance the commitment to the nation, bringing to light his capabilities and potential presented upon it, and reminding them of the Greatness of its pas and present. As the citizen is created aware of his responsibility to his nation, he will end up being urged to contribute to their progress, improvement, and protection.

The Impact of Foreign Cultures Through the Video ¦

Content 8: The Saudi mass communication will offer the family members its due attention, becoming the essential product in the culture, and the 1st school wherever children learn and are led, where their very own personalities will be developed and enriched.

Article 9: The Saudi mass communication affirms the relationship among today’s kid and tomorrow’s environment. Thus, attention will probably be given to the guidance, educational, and fun programs for the children. The courses will be based about educational and scientific concepts, and described by extremely specialized workers. Article 12: Recognizing the innate top quality which the females have, as well as the duty which God provides given her, the mass communication provides special courses which will assist the woman in performing her innate responsibility in society.

Article 10: The Saudi mass conversation will give special consideration for the teenagers, recognizing the importance of the period or adolescence. Thus special programs will be built to deal with tier problems and, meet their demands; thus preparing them adequately in faith and habit.

Article doze: The mass communication will certainly seek, through the use of the audio-visuals, to be informative in all that pertains to the of the Kingdom by means of documentaries and songs within minus he Kingdom.

Article 13: The Saudi mass connection will search for cooperation with educational and social businesses and research centers to conduct communication studies. Article 14: The mass connection will style programs that may appeal for the highly well-informed to keep these people abreast of each of the educational and intellectual studies and medical publications.

Article 15: The mass marketing and sales communications will keep pace with promote ad encourage grant in all domains of field of expertise. This walking cane accomplished by a high level of religion, science, awareness, and determination, having all conditions favorable.

Article 16: Realizing the significant part, the mass communication will deal directly and efficiently to get rid of illiteracy by adop5ting educational and scientific principles, saving educational courses that meet the needs of every grow older and mindset. Article 18: The mass communication in Saudi Arabia is certain that normal Arabic is definitely the vehicle of Islam plus the

reservoir of the education. Therefore, the following factors are emphasized:

(1)

The authors and writers or perhaps programs will probably be directed to stick to closely the principles of sentence structure and syntax, as well as maintain correct expression and pronunciation.

(2)

The newscasters, applications directors, and club benefactors will be given to use common Arabic, to prevent making blunders in pronunciation, and adapt the rules of proper performance.

(3)

To become highly selective, and avoid all of that is negative or

downgrading of standard Persia.

Hassan Omar Basfar

58

(4)

To raise the level of the applications that use colloquial Arabic steadily, and replace it with simple standard Persia.

(5)

To actively support all courses, plays, and series which usually utilize the standard Arabic to create it attractive to the community?

(6)

To interact in teaching standard Persia to the non-Arabic speakers inside the Islamic countries, utilizing the most advanced methods and technology.

Document 18: The Saudi mass media currently support educational and scientific actions by the pursuing ways:

(1)

Stimulating researchers, scientists, intellectuals atlanta divorce attorneys way possible which includes the submitting of their academic works, and giving them for you to express their particular view.

(2)

Guiding small talents, stimulating them and sponsoring all of them until that they reach the desired level.

(3)

Holding academic discussions and literary and scientific conferences among the informed in the Empire, as well as with others exterior; thus, showing the educational and scientific capacities of the Empire.

(4)

Encouraging specialized journals which are released in Saudi Arabia and the Arabic world.

(5)

Supporting national publishing houses that they may publish severe Saudi writings, and recruiting book displays, thus demonstrating the rank which Saudi Arabia has attained in the scientific and educational world.

Article nineteen: The Saudi information mass media stresses the importance of custom and the need to revive this. It carries out its component by

accomplishing the next: (1)

Pushing the upkeep of traditions materially and morally by simply: (a) Preparing programs discovering its books and their

locations.

(b) Punishing it on the response from the government and

so that it is available to everyone.

(c) Facilitating the availability of these books to the

parties worried.

(2)

Fighting off every work which looks for to ruin tradition or perhaps draw it.

(3)

Motivating programs which will draw in books of tradition, particularly in the areas of study, play series and literary biographies.

The Impact of Foreign Cultures Throughout the Video ¦

(4)

fifty nine

Exhibitions grasp places of tradition, launching the public for the forefathers’ /ancestors’ efforts and accomplishments in numerous fields expertise, ND appealing them to link the gap between the earlier and the present of this nation.

Article twenty: The information mass media will strive to bring deeper all the Moslems by means of introducing the Islamic peoples, all their countries, potentials and features; and to instigate cooperation between these countries.

Article 21 years old: The Saudi information media seeks:

(1)

Unity and cooperation of most Arabs, steering clear of all antagonistic tendencies.

(2)

Defenses of their cases particularly the ones coping with the destines, urging those to stand up to get Islam at every opportunity that avails alone.

Article twenty two: The Saudi information multimedia affirms the standing invite to God among Moslems and others till God inherits the whole the planet. Thus the Saudi way of communication participates in these commitments in all perception and tips, seeking to contact intellect when respecting the privacy more. Article 3: The Saudi information mass media, in cooperation with their alternative in the Islamic world in general, and the Arabic world specifically, will strive to adopt a unified programs which provides the spiritual and luxurious interests of most Moslems, and will attempt to stand for their ethnic and perceptive unity.

Document 24: The Saudi info media affirms its admiration of the rights of everyone singularly and jointly. Simultaneously, that seeks to create an atmosphere of harmony, unity, and cooperation among all, informing everyone of his direct responsibility for the whole contemporary society.

Article 25: The Saudi information multimedia seeks being objective in presenting the reality, avoiding exaggerations, valuing the honor of an person’s word plus the need to safeguard it and raise this above just about every suspicion.

Content 26: The Saudi information media desires that freedom of expression be guaranteed within the nationwide goals and values of Islam.

Article 27: The Saudi information press advocates esteem for the dignity of men; to exercise flexibility in his property; to deplore of every take action of assault on individuals or peoples; to battle all expansive intentions; to strand by simply right, justice and tranquility; and to climb against injustice and racism.

Article twenty-eight: The Saudi information multimedia affirms the import of human experienced resources which can be capable of accomplishing the goals from the Saudi way of communication; and entrusting these kinds of resources with training and making important adjustments. Content 29: The Saudi data media stimulates local production of materials which are relative to its plan.

Article 30: The information multimedia of Arab saudi shall abide by this plan and execution of all the rules and regulations.

Hassan Omar Basfar

The Impact of Foreign Cultures Through the Video ¦

1

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Category: Education,

Topic: Arab saudi, Saudi Arabia,

Words: 14047

Published: 02.19.20

Views: 131

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